Self and Self-Esteem

Boulanger, B.Bédard, A.Carbonneau, E., Pelletier, L. G. (2024) Social desirability, dietary intakes, and variables related to attitudes and behaviours towards eating among French-speaking adults from Quebec, Canada: The PREDISE study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 49(2)

Bradshaw, E. L.Ferber, K. A., Ryan, R. M. (2024) Seeking solitude skills: Do memories of intrinsic goals enhance enjoyment of alone time?. Journal of Personality, Advance online publication

Hogue, C. M. (2024) An ego-involving motivational climate can trigger inflammation, a threat appraisal, and basic psychological need frustration in an achievement context. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 46 ,34-49

Neufeld, A.Babenko, O.Malin, G. (2024) Not all ‘impostors’ are created equal: A dimensional, person-centered, and theory-based analysis of medical students. Medical Teacher, Advance online publication

Martinez, A.Browne, L. J., Knee, C. R. (2024) Conceptualizing social media contingent self-esteem: Associations between echo chambers, contingent self-esteem, and problematic social media use. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 18(3) ,Article 2

Chiu, T. (2024) Using self-determination theory (SDT) to explain student STEM interest and identity development. Instructional Science, 52 ,89-107

Vermote, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B.Beyers, W. (2024) Which teachers feel good and adopt a motivating teaching style? The role of teaching identity and motivation to teach. Studies in Higher Education, Advance online publication

Arden, A., Katz, I.Slobodin, O. (2023) Psychological need-based experiences as energizing processes for mothers’ identity formation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 32 ,2573–2587

Clegg, K-A.Levine, S.Zuroff, D. C.Holding, A. C. (2023) A multilevel perspective on self‐determination theory: Predictors and correlates of autonomous and controlled motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 47 ,229-245

Barberis, N., Costa, S.Castiglione, C. (2023) Xenophobia and Xenophilia, the bright and dark sides of attitude towards foreigners: A Self-Determination Theory approach. Psychological Reports, Advance Online ,1-24

Lavrijsen, J., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M.Verschueren, K. (2023) When insecure self-worth drains students’ energy: Academic contingent self-esteem and parents’ and teachers’ perceived conditional regard as predictors of school burnout. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 58 ,810-825

Assor, A., Benita, M.Geifman, Y. (2023) In R. M. Ryan (Ed.), The authentic inner compass as an important motivational experience and structure: Antecedents and benefits. (pp. 362-386) Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780197600047.013.19

Schoofs, L. K.Maunz, L. A.Glaser, J. (2023) Multi-level effects of authentic leadership on self-actualization at work – the mediating roles of authentic followership and basic psychological need satisfaction. Current Psychology, Advance online publication

Chiu, T.Ismailov, M.Zhou, X-Y.Xia, Q. (2023) Using self-determination theory to explain how community-based learning fosters student interest and identity in integrated STEM education. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 21 ,109 -130

Audet, E. C.Levine, S. L.Holding, A. C.Powers, T. A. (2022) Navigating the ups and downs: Peer and family autonomy support during personal goals and crises on identity development. Self and Identity, 21(4) ,456-473

Saricali, M.Guler, D. (2022) The mediating role of psychological need frustration on the relationship between frustration intolerance and existential loneliness. Current Psychology, 41 ,5603–5611

Neufeld, A.Babenko, O.Lai, H.Svrcek, C. (2022) Why do we feel like intellectual frauds? A Self-Determination Theory perspective on the impostor phenomenon in medical students. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 35(2) ,180-192

Steffgen, S. T.Otterpohl, N.Wessing, F.Schwinger, M. (2022) The process linking child-invested contingent self-esteem and conditional regard: The roles of maternal anger and its regulation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 31 ,2412-2423

Di Domenico, S. I.Fournier, M. A.Rodrigo, A. H.Dong, M. (2022) Medial prefrontal activity during self-other judgments is modulated by relationship need fulfillment. Social Neuroscience, 17(3) ,236-245

Xiao, X.Zheng, X. (2022) The effect of parental phubbing on depression in Chinese junior high school students: The mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-esteem. Frontiers in Psychology, 13 ,868354

Legault, L.Sago, A. (2022) When body positivity falls flat: Divergent effects of body acceptance messages that support vs. undermine basic psychological needs. Body Image, 41 ,225–238

Nguyen, T. T., Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M. (2021) In In. R. J. Coplan, J. C. Bowker, & L. Nelson (Eds.), The possibilities of aloneness and solitude: Developing an understanding framed through the lens of human motivation and needs. New York, NY: Wiley-Blackwell Press The handbook of solitude: Psychological perspectives on social isolation, social withdrawal, and being alone, ,224-239

Berkovich, I.Gueta, B. (2021) The effect of autonomy-supportive climate in a second chance programme for at-risk youth on dropout risk: The mediating role of adolescents’ sense of authenticity. , European Journal of Psychology of Education doi: 10.1007/s10212-021-00542-4

Cheng, L.Li, Z.Hao, M.Zhu, X. (2021) Objectification limits authenticity: Exploring the relations between objectification, perceived authenticity, and subjective well-being. British Journal of Social Psychology, Advance Online

Ntoumanis, N.Stenling, A.Quested, E.Nikitaras, N. (2020) Self-compassion and need frustration moderate the effects of upward appearance comparisons on body image discrepancies. The Journal of Psychology, 154 ,292-308

Lynch, M. F. (2020) The Cultural Internalization Scale: Assessing internal and external reasons for endorsing one’s cultural identity. Education and Self-Development, 15(156) ,38-55

Ryan, W.S., Ryan, R. M. (2019) Toward a Social Psychology of Authenticity: Exploring Within-Person Variation in Autonomy, Congruence, and Genuineness Using Self-Determination Theory. SAGE Journals, 23(1) ,99-112

Legate, N., Weinstein, N.Ryan, W. S., DeHaan, C. R. (2019) Parental autonomy support predicts lower internalized homophobia and better psychological health indirectly through lower shame in lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. Stigma and Health, 4(4) ,367-76

Carey, T. M.Maillet, M. A., Grouzet, F. M. (2019) Self-regulation of student drinking behavior: Strength-energy and self-determination theory perspectives. Motivation Science, 5(3) ,202–219

Parker, P. D., Ryan, R. M.Duineveld, J. J., Bradshaw, E. L. (2019) Validation of the social identity group need satisfaction and frustration scale. PsychArxiv,

Visser, C.L.F.Wilschut, J.A.Isik, U.van den Burgt, S.M.E. (2018) The association of readiness for interprofessional learning with empathy, motivation and professional identity development in medical students. BMC Medical Education, 18(125) ,1-10

Ntoumanis, N.Stenling, A., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.Vlachopoulos, S. (2018) Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: A multilevel growth curve model approach. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science In Sports, 28(2) ,746-753

Visser, C. L. F.Wilschut, J. A.Isik, U.van den Burgt, S. M. E. (2018) The association of readiness for interprofessional learning with empathy, motivation and professional identity development in medical students. BMC Medical Education, 18(125) ,1-10

Bouizegarene, N., Philippe, F. L. (2018) Longitudinal directive effect of need satisfaction in self-defining memories on friend related identity processing styles and friend satisfaction. Self and Identity, 17 ,127-138

Park, L. E.Ward, D. E.Naragon-Gainey, K. (2017) It’s all about the money (for some): Consequences of financially contingent self-worth. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(5) ,1-12

Arvanitis, A.Kalliris, K. (2017) A Self-Determination Theory account of self-authorship: Implications for law and public policy. Philosophical Psychology, ,1-21

Legault, L., Weinstein, N.Mitchell, J.Inzlicht, M. (2017) Owning up to negative ingroup traits: How personal autonomy promotes the integration of group identity. Journal of Personality, 5 ,687-701

Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.Dodos, L., Chatzisarantis, N. L., Ntoumanis, N. (2017) A diary study of self-compassion, upward social comparisons, and body image-related outcomes. Applied Psychology: Health And Well-Being, 9(2) ,242-258

Legate, N., Ryan, R. M.Rogge, R. D. (2017) Daily autonomy support and sexual identity disclosure predicts daily mental and physical health outcomes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(6) ,860-873

Bouizegarene, N.Bourdeau, S.Leduc, C.Gousse-Lessard, A-S. (2017) We are our passions: The role of identity processes in harmonious and obsessive passion and links to optimal functioning in society. Self and Identity, 17(1) ,56-74

Mylrea, M. F.Sen Gupta, T.Glass, B. D. (2017) Developing professional identity in undergraduate pharmacy students: A role for self-determination theory. Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland), 5(2) ,16

Assor, A. (2017) The striving to develop an authentic inner-compass as a key component of adolescents' need for Autonomy: Parental antecedents and effects on identity, well-being, and resilience. In Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Van Petegem, S. (Eds.), The striving to develop an authentic inner-compass as a key component of adolescents’ need for qutonomy: Parental antecedents and effects on identity, well-being, and resilience. London: Psychology Press Autonomy in Adolescent Development: Towards Conceptual Clarity, ,119 - 145

Van der Kaap-Deeder, J.Wouters, S.Verschueren, K.Briers, V. (2016) The pursuit of self-esteem and its motivational implications. Psychologica Belgica, 56(3) ,143-168

Noels, K.A.Chaffee, K.E.Lou, N.M.Dincer, A. (2016) Self-determination, engagement, and identity in learning German: Some directions in the psychology of language learning motivation. Fremdsprachen Lehren und Lernen, 45(2) ,12-29

Bouizagarene, N., Philippe, F. L. (2016) Episodic memories as building blocks of identity styles and life domains satisfaction: Examining need satisfaction and need for closure in memories. Memory, 24 ,616-628

Wuyts, D.Chen, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B. (2015) Social pressure and unfulfilled dreams among Chinese and Belgian parents: Two roads to controlling parenting via child-invested contingent self-esteem. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(9) ,1150-1168

Van der Kaap-Deeder, J.Coorevits, N., Vansteenkiste, M. (2015) Zelfwaarde op losse schroeven: Gevolgen en wortels van voorwaardelijke zelfwaarde. [Fragile self-esteem: Consequences and roots of contingent self-esteem]. Caleidoscoop, 27 ,22-29

Milyavskaya, M.Nadolny, D., Koestner, R. (2015) Why do people set more self-concordant goals in need satisfying domains? Testing authenticity as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 77 ,131-136

Hope, N., Koestner, R., Milyavskaya, M. (2014) Self-growth in the College Years: Increased importance of intrinsic values predicts resolution of identity and intimacy stages. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5 ,705-712

Lynch, M. F. (2014) In N. Weinstein (Ed.), The self-concept in relationships. (pp. 121-137) New York, NY: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-8542-6_6

Boone, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., Van der Kaap-Deeder, J. (2014) Self-Critical Perfectionism and Binge Eating Symptoms: A Longitudinal Test of the Intervening Role of Psychological Need Frustration. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 61(3) ,363-373

Verstuyf, J.Van Petegem, S., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B. (2014) The body perfect ideal and eating regulation goals: Investigating the role of adolescents’ identity styles. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43(2) ,284-297

Erdvik, I.Overby, N.Haugen, T. (2014) Students’ self-determined motivation in physical education and intention to be physically active after graduation: The role of perceived competence and identity. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 14 ,232-241

Di Domenico, S. I.Fournier, M. A.Ayaz, H.Ruocco, A. C. (2013) In search of integrative processes: Basic psychological need satisfaction predicts medial prefrontal activation during decisional conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3) ,967-978

Rodriguez, Lindsey M., Knee, C. R.Neighbors, Clayton (2013) Relationships can drive some to drink. Relationship-contingent self-esteem and drinking problems. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 31(2) ,270-290

Hadden, Benjamin W.Overup, Camilla S., Knee, C. R. (2013) Removing the Ego: Need Fulfillment, Self-Image Goals, and Self-Presentation. Self and Identity, ,1-20

Rhodes, J. D.Colder, C. R.Trucco, E. M.Speidel, C. (2013) The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42 ,681-692

Strachan, Shaelyn M., Fortier, M. S.Perras, Melanie G. M.Lugg, Carrie (2013) Understanding variations in exercise-dentity strength through identity theory and self-determination theory. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11 ,273-285

Weinstein, N.Ryan, W. S., DeHaan, C. R., Przybylski, A. K. (2012) Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: Dynamics of self-acceptance and defense. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102 ,815–832

Legate, N., Ryan, R. M., Weinstein, N. (2012) Is coming out always a ‘‘good thing’’? Exploring the relations of autonomy support, outness, and wellness for lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3 ,145-152

Przybylski, A. K., Weinstein, N., , Lynch, M. F. (2012) The ideal self at play: The appeal of video games that let you be all you can be. Psychological Science, 23 ,69–76

Legault, L.Al-KhindiInzlincht, I. (2012) Preserving integrity in the face of performance threat: Self-affirmation enhances neurophysiological responsiveness to errors. Psychological Science, 23 ,1455-1460

Duriez, B.Luyckx, K., Soenens, B.Berzonsky, M. D. (2012) A process-content approach to adolescent identity formation: Examining longitudinal associations between identity styles and goal pursuits. Journal of Personality, 80 ,135-161

Amiot, C. E.Sansfacon, S. (2011) Motivations to identify with social groups: A look at their positive and negative consequences. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 15 ,105–127

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M. (2011) In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), When is identity congruent with the self? A self-determination theory perspective. New York, NY: Springer ,381-402

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2011) In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Multiple identities within a single self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization within contexts and cultures. New York: The Guilford Press ,253-274

Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Ntoumanis, N.Cumming, J.Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2011) When feeling attractive matters too much to women: A process underpinning the relation between psychological need satisfaction and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Motivation and Emotion, 35 ,413–422

Mageau, G. A., Carpentier, J., Vallerand, R. J. (2011) The role of self-esteem contingencies in the distinction between obsessive and harmonious passion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41 ,720-729

Mask, L., Blanchard, C. M. (2011) The protective role of general self-determination against “thin ideal” media exposure on women’s body image and eating-related concerns. Journal of Health Psychology, 16 ,489-499

Mask, L., Blanchard, C. M. (2011) The effects of “thin ideal” media on women’s body image concerns and eating-related intentions: The beneficial role of an autonomous regulation of eating behaviors. Body Image, 8 ,357-365

Vlachopoulos, S. P.Kaperoni, M.Moustaka, F. C. (2011) The relationship of self-determination theory variables to exercise identity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12 ,265-272

Soenens, B.Berzonsky, M. D.Dunkel, C.Papini, D. (2011) Are all identity commitments created equally? The importance of motives for late adolescents’ personal adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35(4) ,358-369

Hodgins, H. S.Weisbust, K. S., Weinstein, N.Shiffman, S. (2010) The cost of self-protection: Threat response and performance as a function of autonomous and controlled motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36 ,1101-1114

Good, J. J.Sanchez, D. T. (2010) Doing gender for different reasons: Why gender conformity positively and negatively predicts self-esteem. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34 ,203–214

Ferris, D. L.Lian, H.Brown, D. J.Pang, F. X. (2010) Self-esteem and job performance: The moderating role of self-esteem contingencies. Personnel Psychology, 63 ,561-593

Smits, I., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M.Luyckx, K. (2010) Why do adolescents gather information or stick to parental norms? Examining autonomous and controlled motives behind adolescents’ identity style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39 ,1343–1356

Ferris, D. L.Brown, D. J.Lian, H. (2009) When does self-esteem relate to deviant behavior? The role of contingencies of self-worth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94 ,1345-1353

Luyckx, K., Vansteenkiste, M.Goossens, L.Duriez, B. (2009) Basic need satisfaction and identity formation: Bridging self-determination theory and process-oriented identity research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56 ,276-288

La Guardia, J. G. (2009) Developing who I am: A self-determination theory approach to the establishment of healthy identities. Educational Psychologist, 44 ,90–104

Chatzisarantis, N. L., Hagger, M. S., Wang, C. K. J.Thogersen-Ntoumanis, C. (2009) The effects of social identity and perceived autonomy support on health behaviour within the theory of planned behaviour. Current Psychology, 28 ,55-68

Chatzisarantis, N. L., Hagger, M. S., Wang, C. K. J., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2009) The effects of social identity and perceived autonomy support on health behaviour within the Theory of Planned Behavior. Current Psychology, 28 ,55-68

Oliver, E.J., Markland, D. A.Hardy, J. (2008) The effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling environments on self-talk. Motivation and Emotion, 32 ,200-212

Guay, F.Delisle, M. N., Fernet, C.Julien, E. (2008) Does task-related identified regulation moderate the sociometer effect? A study of performance feedback, perceived inclusion, and state self-esteem. Social Behavior and Personality, 36 ,239-254

Wilson, P. M.Muon, S. (2008) Psychometric properties of the exercise identity scale in a university sample. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(2) ,115-131

Luyckx, K., Soenens, B.Berzonsky, M. D.Smits, I. (2007) Information-oriented identity processing, identity consolidation, and well-being: The moderating role of autonomy, self-reflection, and self-rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 43 ,1099-1111

Hodgins, H. S.Brown, A. B.Carver, B. (2007) Autonomy and control motivation and self-esteem. Self and Identity, 6 ,189-208

Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M.Goossens, L. (2007) Parental psychological control and dimensions of identity formation in emerging adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21 ,546-550

Georgiadis, M. M., Stavrou, N. A. (2006) Motivation for weight-loss diets: A clustering, longitudinal field study using self-esteem and self-determination theory perspectives. Health Education Journal, 65 ,53-72

Sheldon, K. M. (2006) Catholic guilt? Comparing catholics’ and protestants’ religious motivations. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 16 ,209-223

Moller, A. C.Friedman, R., Deci, E. L. (2006) A self-determination theory perspectives on the interpersonal and intrapersonal aspects of self-esteem. In M. H. Kernis (Ed.), Self-esteem issues and answers: A sourcebook of current perspectives. (pp. 125-131) Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

Little, T. D.Snyder, C. R.Wehmeyer, M. (2006) The agentic self: On the nature and origins of personal agency across the lifespan. In D. Mroczek & T. D. Little (Eds.), Handbook of personality development. (pp. 61–80) Mahwah, NJ: LEA.

Downie, M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R.Liodden, T. (2006) On the risk of being a cultural chameleon: Variations in collective self-esteem across social interactions. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12 ,541-557

Koestner, R., Mageau, G. A. (2006) Assessing implicit and explicit self-esteem: Lessons from 50 years of motive research. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Self-esteem: Issues and answers. (pp. 103-108) New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Standage, M., Duda, J. L.Pensgaard, A. M.  (2005) The effect of competitive outcome and task-involving, ego-involving, and cooperative structures on the psychological well-being of individuals engaged in a co-ordination task: A self-determination approach. Motivation and Emotion, 29(1) ,41-68

Ryan, R. M., La Guardia, J. G.Rawsthorne, L. J. (2005) Self-complexity and the authenticity of self-aspects: Effects on well being and resilience to stressful events. North American Journal of Psychology, 3 ,431-447

Soenens, B.Berzonsky, M. D., Vansteenkiste, M.Beyers, W. (2005) Identity styles and causality orientations: In search of the motivational underpinnings of the identity exploration process. European Journal of Personality, 19 ,427-442

Chirkov, V. I., Ryan, R. M.Willness, C. (2005) Cultural context and psychological needs in Canada and Brazil: Testing a self-determination approach to the internalization of cultural practices, identity, and well-being. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36 ,423-443

Lynch, M. F., Ryan, R. M. (2004) In H. W. Marsh, J. Baumert, G. E. Richards, & U. Trautwein (Eds)., On being yourself: Consistency versus authenticity of self-concept in cultural and interpersonal contexts. Sydney, Australia: SELF Research Centre, University Of Western Sydney

Neighbors, C.Larimer, M. E.Geisner, I. M., Knee, C. R. (2004) Feeling controlled and drinking motives among college students: Contingent self-esteem as a mediator. Self and Identity, 3 ,207-224

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2004) Avoiding death or engaging life as accounts of meaning and culture: A comment on Pyszczynski, Greenberg, Solomon, Arndt, and Schimel. Psychological Bulletin, 130 ,473-477

Patrick, H., Neighbors, C., Knee, C. R. (2004) Appearance-related social comparisons: The role of contingent self-esteem and self-perceptions of attractiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 ,501-514

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2004) Autonomy is no illusion: Self-determination theory and the empirical study of authenticity, awareness, and will. In J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of experimental existential psychology. (pp. 449-479) New York: Guilford Press.

Ryan, R. M., Brown, K. W. (2003) Why we don’t need self-esteem: On fundamental needs, contingent love, and mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 14 ,71-76

, (2003) Optimal self-esteem and authenticity: Separating fantasy from reality. Psychological Inquiry, 14 ,83-89

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2003) In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), On assimilating identities to the self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization and integrity within cultures. New York: The Guilford Press ,253-274

Hodgins, H. S., Knee, C. R. (2002) In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), The integrating self and conscious experience. (pp. 87-100) Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press.

Paradise, A. W. (2002) In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Distinguishing between secure and fragile forms of high self-esteem. (pp. 339-360) Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press.

Schimel, J.Arndt, J.Pyszczynski, T.Greenberg, J. (2001) Being accepted for who we are: Evidence that social validation of the intrinsic self reduces general defensiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 ,35-52

Paradise, A. W.Whitaker, D. J.Wheatman, S. R. (2000) Master of one’s psychological domain? Not likely if one’s self-esteem is unstable. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 ,1297-1305

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M.Rawsthorne, L. J.Ilardi, B. (1997) Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the Big Five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73 ,1380-1393

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (1995) Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem. (pp. 31-49) New York: Plenum Publishing Co.

Sheldon, K. M. (1995) Creativity and self-determination in personality. Creativity Research Journal, 8(1) ,25-36

Ryan, R. M.Stiller, J.Lynch, J. H. (1994) Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14(2) ,226-249

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (1991) A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Perspectives on motivation, Vol. 38. (pp. 237-288) Lincoln, NE: University Of Nebraska Press.

Ryan, R. M. (1991) The nature of the self in autonomy and relatedness. In J. Strauss &, G. R. Goethals (Eds.), Multidisciplinary perspectives on the self. (pp. 208-238) New York: Springer-Verlag.

Ryan, R. M.Plant, R. W.Kuczkowski, R. J. (1991) Relation of self-projection processes to performance, emotion, and memory in a controlled interaction setting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17 ,427-434