Goals, Values, and Aspirations

Ryan, R. M.Sheldon, K. M.Kasser, T.Deci, E. L. (1996) All goals are not created equal: An organismic perspective on the nature of goals and their regulation. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior. (pp. 7-26) New York: Guilford Press.

Deci, E. L.Ryan, R. M. (2000) The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11 ,227-268

Benita, M.Shane, N.Elgali, O., Roth, G. (2017) The important role of the context in which achievement goals are adopted: an experimental test. Motivation and Emotion, 41 ,180-195

Guertin, C.Barbeau, K., Pelletier, L. G.Martinelli, G. (2017) Why do women engage in fat talk? Examining fat talk using Self-Determination Theory as an explanatory framework. Body Image, 20 ,7-15

Park, L. E.Ward, D. E.Naragon-Gainey, K. (2017) It’s all about the money (for some): Consequences of financially contingent self- worth. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(5) ,1-12

Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M.Konow, J. (2016) Materialism, spending, and affect: An event-sampling study of marketplace behavior and its affective costs. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(6) ,2277-2292

Werner, K. M., Milyavskaya, M.Foxen-craft, E., Koestner, R. (2016) Some goals just feel easier: Self-concordance leads to goal progress through subjective ease, not effort.. Personality and Individual Differences, 96 ,237-242

Lopez, R. B., Milyavskaya, M.Hofmann, W.Heatherton, T. F. (2016) Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students. Appetite, ,192-199

Thibault Landry, A.Kindlein, J.Trépanier, S.-G., Forest, J. (2016) Why individuals want money matters: Using self-determination theory to explain the differential relations between motives for making money and employee psychological health. Motivation and Emotion, 40 ,226-242

Mageau, G. A.Bureau, J. S.Ranger, F.Allen, M.-P., (2016) Parental achievement goals as determinants of autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25 ,1702-1711

Martela, F., Ryan, R. M. (2016) The benefits of benevolence: Basic psychological needs, beneficence, and the enhancement of well-being. Journal of Personality, 84(6) ,750-764

Davids, E. L.Ryan, J.Yassin, Z.Hendrickse, S. (2016) Family structure and functioning: Influences on adolescents psychological needs, goals and aspirations in a South African setting. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 26(4) ,351-356

Martela, F., Ryan, R. M. (2016) Prosocial behavior increases well-being and vitality even without contact with the beneficiary: Causal and behavioral evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 40 ,351-357

Milyavskaya, M.Inzlicht, M.Hope, N., Koestner, R. (2015) Saying ‘No’ to temptation: ‘want-to’ motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ,677-693

Soenens, B.Wuyts, D., Vansteenkiste, M., Mageau, G. A. (2015) Raising trophy kids: The role of mothers’ contingent self-esteem in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals. Journal of Adolescence, 42 ,40-49

Milyavskaya, M.Nadolny, D., Koestner, R. (2015) Why do people set more self-concordant goals in need satisfying domains? Testing authenticity as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 77 ,131-136

Hardy, S. A.Dollahite, D. C.Johnson, N.Christensen, J. B. (2015) Adolescent motivations to engage in prosocial behaviors and abstain from health-risk behaviors: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Personality, 83 ,479-490

Montasem, ABrown, S.Harris, R. (2014) Subjective well-being in dentists: the role of intrinsic aspirations. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 42 ,279-288

Healy, L.C., Ntoumanis, N.van Zanten, J.V.Paine, N. (2014) Goal striving and well-being in sport: The role of contextual and personal motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36 ,446-459

Ntoumanis, N.Healy, L.C.Sedikides, C., Duda, J. L. (2014) When the going gets tough: The “why” of goal striving matters. Journal of Personality, 8 ,225-236

Ntoumanis, N.Healy, L. C.Sedikides, C.Smith, A. L. (2014) Self-regulatory responses to unattainable goals: The role of goal motives. Self and Identity, 13 ,594 - 612

Benita, M., Roth, G., Deci, E. L. (2014) When are mastery goals more adaptive? It depends on experiences of autonomy support and autonomy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106 ,258-267

Milyavskaya, M.Nadolny, D, Koestner, R. (2014) Where do self-concordant goals come from? The role of domain-specific psychological need satisfaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40 ,700-711

Kasser, T.Rosenblum, K. L.Sameroff, A. J., Deci, E. L. (2014) Changes in materialism, changes in psychological well-being: Evidence from three longitudinal studies and an intervention experiment. Motivation and Emotion, 38 ,1-22

Ziviani, J., Poulsen, A. A.Kotaniemi, K.Law, M. (2014) The Belief in Goal Self-Competence Scale (BiGSS) – Exploring a new way to support individual goal pursuit and document occupational therapy outcomes in paediatric practice. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 61 ,316-324

Poulsen, A. A., Ziviani, J.Kotaniemi, K.Law, M. (2014) “I think I can”: Measuring confidence in goal pursuit. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77 ,64-66

Smith, A.L., Ntoumanis, N. (2014) An examination of goal motives and athletes’ self-regulatory responses to unattainable goals. International Journal of Sport Psychology: Building Bridges between Motivation and Self-Regulation in Sport, Exercise, and Physical, 4 ,538-558

Hortop, E. G.Wrosch, C., Gagné, M. (2013) The how and why of goal pursuits: Effects of global perceived control and autonomous motivation on subjective well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 37 ,675-687

Przybylski, A. K., DeHaan, C. R.Gladwell, V. (2013) Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 ,1841–1848

Guiffrida, D., Lynch, M. F.Wall, A.Abel, D. (2013) Do reasons for attending college affect academic outcomes? A test of a motivational model from a self-determination theory perspective. Journal of College Student Development, 54 ,121-139

Romero, E.Gómez-Fraguela, J. A.Villar, P. (2012) Life aspirations, personality traits and subjective well-being in a Spanish sample. European Journal of Personality, 26 ,45-55

Martos, T.Kopp, M. S. (2012) Life goals and well-being: Does financial status matter? Evidence from a representative Hungarian sample. Social Indicators Research, 105 ,561-568

Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2012) Motivation, meaning and wellness: A self-determination perspective on the creation and internalization of personal meanings and life goals. In P. T. P. Wang (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications. (pp. 81-106) New York: Routledge Publishers. doi: 10.4324/9780203146286

Legault, L.Al-KhindiInzlincht, I. (2012) Preserving integrity in the face of performance threat: Self-affirmation enhances neurophysiological responsiveness to errors.. Psychological Science, 23 ,1455-1460

Duriez, B.Luyckx, K., Soenens, B.Berzonsky, M. D. (2012) A process-content approach to adolescent identity formation: Examining longitudinal associations between identity styles and goal pursuits. Journal of Personality, 80 ,135-161

Verstuyf, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B. (2012) Eating regulation and bulimic symptoms: The differential correlates of health-focused and appearance-focused eating regulation. Body Image, 9 ,108-117

Waaler, R., Halvari, H.Skjesol, K.Bagoien, T. E. (2012) Autonomy support and intrinsic goal progress expectancy and its links to longitudinal study effort and subjective well-being: The differential mediating effects of intrinsic and identified regulations and the moderator effect of effort and intrinsic goals. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 57 ,325-341

Duriez, B.Meeus, J., Vansteenkiste, M. (2012) Why are some people more susceptible to ingroup threat than others? The importance of a relative extrinsic to intrinsic value orientation. Journal of Research in Personality, 46 ,164–172

Kasser, T. (2011) Cultural values and the well-being of future generations: A cross-national study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42 ,206-215

Sheldon, K. M.Nichols, C. P., Kasser, T. (2011) Americans recommend smaller ecological footprints when reminded of intrinsic American values of self-expression, family, and generosity. Ecopsychology, 3 ,97-104

McLachlan, S., Hagger, M. S. (2011) Do people differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic goals in physical activity behavior?. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33 ,273-288

Kirkegaard Thomsen, D.Tønnesvang, J.Schnieber, A., Hammershøj Olesen, M. (2011) Do people ruminate because they haven’t digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence. New York: Springer Motivation and Emotion, 35 ,105-117

Roth, G., Kanat-Maymon, Y.Bibi, U. (2011) Prevention of school bullying: The important role of autonomy-supportive teaching and internalization of pro-social values. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 ,654–666

Ciani, K. D., Sheldon, K. M.Hilpert, J. C.Easter, M. A. (2011) Antecedents and trajectories of achievement goals: A self-determination theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 ,223–243

Duriez, B. (2011) The social costs of extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits revisited: The moderating role of general causality orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 50 ,684–687

Sebire, S., Standage, M., Vansteenkiste, M. (2011) Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: Evidence for a mediational model. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33 ,175-197

Wang, C. K.Sproule, J.McNeill, M.Martindale, R. J. J. (2011) Impact of the talent development environment on achievement goals and life aspirations in Singapore. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23 ,263-276

Sheldon, K. M.Gunz, A.Nichols, C. P.Ferguson, Y. (2010) Extrinsic value orientation and affective forecasting: Overestimating the rewards, underestimating the costs. Journal of Personality, 78 ,149-178

Ferguson, Y., Sheldon, K. M. (2010) Should goal-strivers think about ‘‘why’’ or ‘‘how’’ to strive? It depends on their skill level. Springer Motivation and Emotion, 34 ,253-265

Weinstein, N.Przybylski, A. K., Ryan, R. M. (2009) Can nature make us more caring? Effects of immersion in nature on intrinsic aspirations and generosity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35 ,1315-1329

Nien, C., Duda, J. L. (2009) Antecedents and consequences of approach and avoidance achievement goals: A test of gender invariance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9 ,352-372

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Williams, G. C. (2009) Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Patient Education and Counseling, 74 ,250-257

Van Hiel, A., Vansteenkiste, M. (2009) Ambitions fullfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults’ ego-integrity and death attitudes. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 68 ,27-51

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (2009) The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43 ,291-306

Koestner, R. (2008) Reaching one’s personal goals: A motivational perspective focused on autonomy. Canadian Psychology, 49 ,60-67

Vansteenkiste, M.Timmermans, T.Lens, W.Soenens, B. (2008) Does extrinsic goal framing enhance extrinsic goal oriented individuals’ learning and performance? An experimental test of the match-perspective vs. self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100 ,387-397

Sebire, S., Standage, M., Vansteenkiste, M. (2008) Development and validation of the goal content for exercise questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 30 ,353-377

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M. (2008) The intergenerational transmission of authoritarianism: The mediating role of parental goal promotion. Journal of Research in Personality, 42 ,622-642

Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B.Lens, W. (2007) Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal promotion in sport and exercise: Understanding their differential impact on performance and persistence. In M. S. Hagger and N. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-Determination Theory in exercise and sport. (pp. 167-180) Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Kasser, T.Cohn, S.Kanner, A. D., Ryan, R. M. (2007) Some costs of American corporate capitalism: A psychological exploration of value and goal conflicts. Psychological Inquiry, 18 ,1-22

Vallerand, R. J.Salvy, S. J., Mageau, G. A.Elliot, A. J. (2007) On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality, 75 ,505-534

Duriez, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B. (2007) The social costs of extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits: Their relation with social dominance and racial and ethnic prejudice. Journal of Personality, 75 ,757-782

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M. (2007) In search of the antecedents of adolescent authoritarianism: The relative contribution of parental goal promotion and parenting style dimensions. European Journal of Personality, 21 ,507-527

Chatzisarantis, N. L., Hagger, M. S. (2007) The moral worth of sport reconsidered: Contributions of recreational sport and competitive sport to life aspirations and psychological well-being. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25 ,1047-1056

Sheldon, K. M.Houser-Marko, L., Kasser, T. (2006) Does autonomy increase with age? Comparing the goal motivations of college students and their parents. Journal of Research in Personality, 40 ,168-178

Vansteenkiste, M.Duriez, B.Simons, J., Soenens, B. (2006) Materialistic values and well-being among business students: Further evidence for their detrimental effect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36 ,2892-2908

Rijavec, M.Brdar, I.Miljkovic, D. (2006) Extrinsic vs. intrinsic life goals, psychological needs, and life satisfaction. In A. Delle Fave (Ed.), Dimensions of well-being. Research and intervention. (pp. 91-104 ) Milano: Franco Angeli.

Vansteenkiste, M.Lens, W., Deci, E. L. (2006) Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 41 ,19-31

Sheldon, K. M. (2005) Positive value change during college: Normative trends and individual differences. Journal of Research in Personality, 39 ,209-223

Vansteenkiste, M.Simons, J.Lens, W., Soenens, B. (2005) Examining the motivational impact of intrinsic versus extrinsic goal framing and autonomy-supportive versus internally controlling communication style on early adolescents’ academic achievement. Child Development, 2 ,483-501

Sheldon, K. M., Vansteenkiste, M. (2005) Time travel via goals: Implications and issues. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time: Theory, research, and applications in social, personality, health, and environmental psychology. (pp. 143-165) London: Erlbaum.

Brown, K. W., Kasser, T. (2005) Are psychological and ecological well-being compatible? The role of values, mindfulness, and lifestyle. Social Indicators Research, 74 ,349-368

Grouzet, F. M., Kasser, T.Ahuvia, A.Dols, J. M. F. (2005) The structure of goals across 15 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 ,800-816

Cozzolino, P. J.Staples, A. D.Meyers, L. S. (2004) Greed, death, and values: From terror management to transcendence management theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 ,278-292

Vansteenkiste, M.Simons, J.Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M. (2004) Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 ,246-260

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Kasser, T. (2004) The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: It’s both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 ,475-486

Kim, Y., Kasser, T.Lee, H. (2003) Self-concept, aspirations, and well-being in South Korea and the United States. Journal of Social Psychology, 143 ,277-290

Sheldon, K. M.Arndt, J.Houser-Marko, L. I (2003) In search of the organismic valuing process: The human tendency to move towards beneficial goal choices. Journal of Personality, 71 ,835-869

Kasser, T.Ahuvia, A. C. (2002) Materialistic values and well-being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32 ,137-146

Kasser, T., Koestner, R.Lekes, N. (2002) Early family experiences and adult values: A 26-year, prospective longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 ,826-835

Kasser, T. (2002) Sketches for a self-determination theory of values. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research. (pp. 123-140) Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press.

Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T. (2001) Goals, congruence, and positive well-being: New empirical validation for humanistic ideas. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41 ,30-50

Sheldon, K. M.Houser-Marko, L. (2001) Self-concordance, goal-attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80 ,152-165

Williams, G. C.Cox, E. M.Hedberg, V.,, Deci, E. L. (2000) Extrinsic life goals and health risk behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30 ,1756-1771

Schmuck, P., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M. (2000) The relationship of well-being to intrinsic and extrinsic goals in Germany and the U.S. Social Indicators Research, 50 ,225-241

Sheldon, K. M.Elliot, A. J. (2000) Personal goals in social roles: Divergences and convergences across roles and levels of analysis. Journal of Personality, 68 ,51-84

Sheldon, K. M.McGregor, H. A. (2000) Extrinsic value orientation and ‘the tragedy of the commons’. Journal of Personality, 68 ,383-411

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (2000) The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11 ,227-268

Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V. I., Little, T. D., Sheldon, K. M. (1999) The American dream in Russia: Extrinsic aspirations and well-being in two cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25 ,1509-1524

McHoskey, J. W. (1999) Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23 ,267-283

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L. (1999) Approaching and avoiding self-determination: comparing cybernetic and organismic paradigms of motivation. In C. Carver & M. Scheier (Eds.), Perspectives on behavioral self-regulation: Advances in social cognition. , XII (pp. 193-215) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Sheldon, K. M.Elliot, A. J. (1999) Goal striving, need-satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76 ,482-497

Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T. (1998) Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24 ,1319-1331

Sheldon, K. M.Elliot, A. J. (1998) Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing autonomous and controlling goals on effort and attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24 ,546-557

Ryan, R. M., Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., Deci, E. L. (1996) All goals are not created equal: An organismic perspective on the nature of goals and their regulation. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior. (pp. 7-26) New York: Guilford Press.

Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M. (1996) Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22 ,280-287

Kasser, T. (1996) Aspirations and well-being in a prison setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26 ,1367-1377

Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T. (1995) Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68 ,531-543

Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M.Zax, M.Sameroff, A. J. (1995) The relations of maternal and social environments to late adolescents’ materialistic and prosocial values. Developmental Psychology, 31 ,907-914

Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M. (1993) A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 ,410-422