The Behavioural Regulation In Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ)

The Behavioural Regulation In Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) and its subsequent modifications have become the most widely used measures of the continuum of behavioural regulation in exercise psychology research. The original BREQ developed by Mullan, Markland & Ingledew (1997) was developed to measure external, introjected, identified and intrinsic forms of regulation of exercise behaviour based on Deci & Ryan’s (1985, 1991) continuum conception of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, described by Organismic Integration Theory. 

Subsequently, the BREQ has been modified and advanced by the Exercise Motivation Lab at the School of Sport Health & Exercise Sciences at Bangor University. More information on the development of the BREQ as well as the various versions and scoring can be found on the Lab’s research page at:

Note: The initial BREQ item pool included items designed to tap amotivation but these were dropped during preliminary analyses because, due to the nature of the development sample, the items exhibited very high levels of skewness. Nevertheless, the Exercise Motivation Lab at Bangor recognized that with more general samples, amotivation is an issue worth exploring. For this reason we (Markland & Tobin, 2004) reinstated the amotivation items in a second version of the instrument, called the BREQ-2. 

In common with some other measures of the behavioural regulation continuum in different contexts, the BREQ-2 does not include an integrated regulation subscale. This is because, in the initial stages of the development of the instrument, it was found to be difficult to distinguish empirically between integration and identified regulation on the one hand and intrinsic regulation on the other hand. However, Wilson, Rodgers, Loitz, and Scime (2006) added an integration subscale to the instrument which works well. And, this version has incorporated this subscale into the instrument to produce the BREQ-3. The BREQ-3 also includes a new additional introjection item. 

If you use the BREQ-3, please cite both Markland and Tobin (2004) and Wilson et al. (2006) in any subsequent papers or reports (see references below).

Scoring Information for the scale can be found at:

A BREQ-4 version was developed by Teixeira, Rodrigues, Monteiro, & Cid (2022) for a Portuguese population. That version (with English translation too) of their BREQ-4 can be found below under Translations.  

Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS)

Why Do You Do Your Work?

Virtual Care Climate Questionnaire (VCCQ)

A questionnaire consisting of 15 items measuring perceived support for autonomy in a virtual care setting

Tripartite Measure of Interpersonal Behaviors-Coach (TMIB-C)

This scale assesses the degree to which coaches utilize need supportive, need thwarting, and need indifferent behaviors when interacting with their athletes.

Sport Motivation Scale Revised (SMS-II)

Psychological Need Thwarting in the Sport Context (PNTS)

The questionnaire measure has been designed to tap the frustration of the three psychological needs in the sport environment. The term “thwarting” was used to name the scale because at the time it was the predominant term in the SDT literature to describe need deprivation. More recently, the term “frustration” has been more predominantly used.

Psychological Need Satisfaction In Walking Scale (PNSWS)

Psychological Need States in Sport Scale (PNSSS)

This scale assess the degree to which athletes experience satisfaction or frustration of their basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.

Perceived Choice and Awareness of Self Scale (PCASS)

This scale assesses individual differences (trait level) in perceived choice and awareness of self. Perceived choice reflects feeling a sense of choice with respect to one’s behavior and awareness of self reflects being aware of one’s feelings and one’s sense of self. The PCASS is a short, 10- item scale, with two 5-item subscales. The first subscale is perceived choice in one’s actions, and the second is awareness of oneself. The subscales can either be used separately or they can be combined into an overall score.

This scale was formerly labeled as Self-Determination Scale (SDS) and has been renamed to better capture the constructs it assesses. Those interested in measures of self-determination, please refer to the following: (1) General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS) or (2) Autonomous Functioning Index (AFI) when assessing global individual differences in self- determination/autonomy; (3) Self-Regulation Questionnaires (SRQ) when assessing self- determination/autonomy of a specific domain/behavior (e.g., academic, exercise).