Perceived Choice and Awareness of Self Scale (PCASS)

This scale assesses individual differences (trait level) in perceived choice and awareness of self. Perceived choice reflects feeling a sense of choice with respect to one’s behavior and awareness of self reflects being aware of one’s feelings and one’s sense of self. The PCASS is a short, 10- item scale, with two 5-item subscales. The first subscale is perceived choice in one’s actions, and the second is awareness of oneself. The subscales can either be used separately or they can be combined into an overall score.

This scale was formerly labeled as Self-Determination Scale (SDS) and has been renamed to better capture the constructs it assesses. Those interested in measures of self-determination, please refer to the following: (1) General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS) or (2) Autonomous Functioning Index (AFI) when assessing global individual differences in self- determination/autonomy; (3) Self-Regulation Questionnaires (SRQ) when assessing self- determination/autonomy of a specific domain/behavior (e.g., academic, exercise).

Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (MWMS)

Motivation to Volunteer Scale (MVS)

Motivation for Learning Music (MLM)

Goal Content for Weight Maintenance Scale (GCWMS)

Emotion Regulation Scales (ERI)

The Emotion Regulation Inventory (ERI; developed by Roth et al., 2009) assesses the regulation of negative emotions. 

The ERI consists of the following three subscales: 

  • Integration (six items, e.g., “Negative emotions can sometimes help me understand important things about myself”)
  • Suppression (six items, e.g., “When I feel negative emotions, I almost always hide it so others won’t notice it”), and 
  • Dysregulation (six items, e.g., “It is hard for me to control my negative emotions”). 

Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (Completely disagree) to 5 (Completely agree).

Coaches’ Controlling Interpersonal Style (CCBS)

Behavioural Regulations For Walking Questionnaire (BRWQ)


We are interested in the reasons underlying peoples’ decisions to engage, or not engage in walking. Walking may include walking for transport, leisure, and whilst at work.

Using the scale below, please indicate to what extent each of the following items is true for you. Please note that there are no right or wrong answers and no trick questions. We simply want to know how you personally feel about walking. Your responses will be held in confidence and only used for our research purposes.

Subjective Vitality Scales (SVS)

The concept of subjective vitality refers to the state of feeling alive and alert–to having energy available to the self. Vitality is considered an aspect of eudaimonic well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2001), as being vital and energetic is part of what it means to be fully functioning and psychologically well.

Ryan and Frederick (1997) developed a scale of subjective vitality that has two versions. One version is considered an individual difference. In other words, it is an ongoing characteristics of individuals which has been found to relate positively to self-actualization and self-esteem and to relate negatively to depression and anxiety. The other version of the scale assesses the state of subjective vitality rather than its enduring aspect.
At the state level, vitality has been found to relate negatively to physical pain and positively to the amount of autonomy support in a particular situation (e.g., Nix, Ryan, Manly, & Deci, 1999). In short, because the concept of psychological well-being is addressed at both the individual difference level and the state level, the two levels of assessing subjective vitality tie into the two level of well being.

The original scale had 7 items and was validated at both levels by Ryan and Frederick (1997). Subsequent work by Bostic, Rubio, and Hood (2000) using confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a 6-item version worked even better than the 7-item version.