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Emotion Regulation Scales (ERI)

The Emotion Regulation Inventory (ERI; developed by Roth et al., 2009) assesses the regulation of negative emotions. 

The ERI consists of the following three subscales: 

  • Integration (six items, e.g., “Negative emotions can sometimes help me understand important things about myself”)
  • Suppression (six items, e.g., “When I feel negative emotions, I almost always hide it so others won’t notice it”), and 
  • Dysregulation (six items, e.g., “It is hard for me to control my negative emotions”). 

Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (Completely disagree) to 5 (Completely agree).


Main Questionnaire


(2009) Developmental Psychology

The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices

Roth, G. Assor, A. Niemiec, C. P. Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.

(2020) Motivation and Emotion

Integrative and suppressive emotion regulation differentially predict well-being through basic need satisfaction and frustration: A test of three countries

Benita, M. Benish-Weisman, M. Matos, L. Torres, C.

(2017) Learning and Instruction

Integrative emotion regulation predicts adolescents' prosocial behavior through the mediation of empathy

Benita, M. Levkovitz, T. Roth, G.

(2020) Journal of Personality

Emotion regulation during personal goal pursuit: Integration versus suppression of emotions

Benita, M. Shechter, T. Nudler-Muzikant, S. Arbel, R.

(2015) Social Development

Perceived maternal autonomy support and early adolescent emotion regulation: A longitudinal study

Brenning, K. Soenens, B. Van Petegem, S. Vansteenkiste, M.

(2021) Child Psychiatry & Human Development

Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic risk factor for (non)clinical adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: Investigating the intervening role of psychological need experiences

Brenning, K. Soenens, B. Vansteenkiste, M. De Clercq, B. Antrop, I.

(2012) Journal of Adolescence

The costs of parental pressure to express emotions: Conditional regard and autonomy support as predictors of emotion regulation and intimacy

Roth, G. Assor, A.

(2014) Emotion

Integration of negative emotional experience versus suppression: Addressing the question of adaptive functioning

Roth, G. Benita, M. Amrani, C. Shachar, B.-H. Asoulin, H. Moed, A. Bibi, U. Kanat-Maymon, Y.

(2017) Cognition and Emotion

Empathising with the enemy: Emotion regulation and support for humanitarian aid in violent conflicts

Roth, G. Shane, N. Kanat-Maymon, Y.

Validation Articles

(2021) PRE PRINT

Emotion regulation in times of COVID-19: A person-centered approach based on self-determination theory

Waterschoot, J. Morbée, S. Vermote, B. Brenning, K. Flamant, N. Vansteenkiste, M. Soenens, B.