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Emotion Regulation Inventory (ERI)

The Emotion Regulation Inventory (ERI) was developed by Roth, Assor, Niemiec, Ryan & Deci, 2009 to measure three styles of emotion regulation that correspond to autonomous, controlled, and impersonal modes of functioning, respectively (Roth, Vansteenkiste, & Ryan, 2019).

  1. Integrative emotion regulation reflects an autonomous style of dealing with negative emotions. It involves a welcoming attitude towards negative emotions, openness and curiosity to understand the reasons behind negative emotions, and a willingness to learn from negative emotions as guides for future behavior. The high levels of emotional awareness typical of integrative emotion regulation allow people to express their emotions choicefully. 
  2. Suppressive emotion regulation is more controlled in nature and reflects an inner compulsion to avoid or minimize negative emotions. It involves a lack of willingness to recognize negative emotions for oneself and a tendency to hide negative emotions towards others.
  3. Dysregulated emotion regulation reflects an impersonal and helpless style of dealing with negative emotions. People with this emotion regulation style feel easily overwhelmed by negative emotions and express their negative emotions in ways they do not want.

The ERI initially consisted of 3 or 4 items per scale but was later adapted to include 6 items per scale. The original items used in Roth et al. (2009) are indicated with an asterisk in the downloadable PDF below.

Research has demonstrated adequate reliability and evidence for the internal structure of the ERI (see validation articles: Benita et al., 2020; Brenning et al., 2015; Roth et al., 2009). Moreover, the three scales from the ERI were found to relate to indicators of mental health in theoretically expected ways, with integrative emotion regulation relating positively to well-being and prosocial behavior (Benita et al., 2017, 2020) and with suppressive and dysregulated emotion regulation relating to increased risk for psychopathology (Brenning et al., 2022; Waterschoot et al., in press).

These associations have been confirmed in different countries (Benita et al., 2020). Each of the three emotion regulation were also predicted by theoretically plausible parental antecedents, with autonomy-supportive parenting relating positively to integrative emotion regulation and with controlling parenting relating positively to suppressive and dysregulated emotion regulation (see Brenning et al., 2015; Roth et al., 2009; Roth & Assor, 2012).

The ERI can be used to measure individuals’ regulation of negative emotions in general but also their regulation of specific negative emotions such as anger, sadness, or stress. The instructions and items in the scale refer to negative emotions in general but can be adapted easily to refer to specific negative emotions. For example, Brenning et al. 2020 applied ERI items to negative emotions experienced by parents during interactions with their toddler. The specific items selected from the ERI by Brenning et al. 2020 were: Integrative: 3, 6, 9, 12 / Suppressive: 2, 5, 8, 11 / Dysregulated: 1, 4, 7, 13


Main Questionnaire

127 KB

Emotion Regulation Inventory (ERI)

Roth, G., Assor, A., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 1119-1142.

Domain Specific Questionnaire(s)



(2009) Developmental Psychology

The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices

Roth, G. Assor, A. Niemiec, C. P. Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.

Validation Articles

(2024) PLoS ONE

Integrative emotion regulation relates to sympathy and support for outgroups — Independent of situational outgroup behaviour

Ditrich, L. Roth, G. Sassenberg, K.

(2023) Current Psychology

Emotion regulation in times of COVID-19: A person-centered approach based on self-determination theory

Waterschoot, J. Morbée, S. Vermote, B. Brenning, K. Flamant, N. Vansteenkiste, M. Soenens, B.

(2023) International Journal of Emotional Education

Antecedents of empathic capacity: Emotion regulation styles as mediators between controlling versus autonomy - supportive maternal practices and empathy

Kalman-Halevi, M. Kanat-Maymon, Y. Roth, G.

(2023) Motivation and Emotion

Emotion crafting: Individuals as agents of their positive emotional experiences

Van der Kaap-Deeder, J. Wichstrøm, L. Mouratidis, A. Matos, L. Steinsbekk, S.

(2022) Child Psychiatry & Human Development

Emotion regulation as a transdiagnostic risk factor for (non)clinical adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing psychopathology: Investigating the intervening role of psychological need experiences

Brenning, K. Soenens, B. Vansteenkiste, M. De Clercq, B. Antrop, I.

(2020) Motivation and Emotion

Integrative and suppressive emotion regulation differentially predict well-being through basic need satisfaction and frustration: A test of three countries

Benita, M. Benish-Weisman, M. Matos, L. Torres, C.

(2020) Journal of Personality

Emotion regulation during personal goal pursuit: Integration versus suppression of emotions

Benita, M. Shechter, T. Nudler-Muzikant, S. Arbel, R.

(2020) Journal of Child and Family Studies

Psychologically controlling parenting during toddlerhood: The role of mothers’ perceived parenting history and emotion regulation style

Brenning, K. Soenens, B. Van der Kaap-Deeder, J. Dieleman, L. Vansteenkiste, M.

(2019) Development and Psychopathology

Integrative emotion regulation: Process and development from a self-determination theory perspective

Roth, G. Vansteenkiste, M. Ryan, R. M.

(2019) Journal of Social and Personal Relationships

Emotion regulation and intimacy quality: The consequences of emotional integration, emotional distancing, and suppression

Shahar, B. Kalman-Halevi, M. Roth, G.

(2017) Learning and Instruction

Integrative emotion regulation predicts adolescents' prosocial behavior through the mediation of empathy

Benita, M. Levkovitz, T. Roth, G.

(2017) Cognition and Emotion

Empathising with the enemy: Emotion regulation and support for humanitarian aid in violent conflicts

Roth, G. Shane, N. Kanat-Maymon, Y.

(2015) Social Development

Perceived maternal autonomy support and early adolescent emotion regulation: A longitudinal study

Brenning, K. Soenens, B. Van Petegem, S. Vansteenkiste, M.

(2014) Emotion

Integration of negative emotional experience versus suppression: Addressing the question of adaptive functioning

Roth, G. Benita, M. Amrani, C. Shachar, B.-H. Asoulin, H. Moed, A. Bibi, U. Kanat-Maymon, Y.

(2012) Journal of Adolescence

The costs of parental pressure to express emotions: Conditional regard and autonomy support as predictors of emotion regulation and intimacy

Roth, G. Assor, A.