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Self-Regulation Questionnaires (SRQ)

The Self-Regulation Questionnaires assess domain-specific individual differences in the types of motivation or regulation. That is, the questions concern the regulation of a particular behavior (e.g., exercising regularly) or class of behaviors (e.g., engaging in religious behaviors). The regulatory styles, while considered individual differences, are not “trait” concepts, for they are not general nor are they particularly stable. But neither are they “state” concepts, for they are more stable than typical states which fluctuate easily as a function of time and place. The format for these questionnaires was introduced by Ryan and Connell (1989). Each questionnaire asks why the respondent does a behavior (or class of behaviors) and then provides several possible reasons that have been preselected to represent the different styles of regulation or motivation. The first two questionnaires were developed for late-elementary and middle school children, and concern school work (SRQ-Academic) and prosocial behavior (SRQ-Prosocial). Their validation is described in the Ryan and Connell (1989) article. Since then, several others have been developed that are intended for adults. Those two, and five other SRQs are displayed in this section of the web site.

They are:

  • Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A)
  • Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-P)
  • Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)
  • Learning Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-L)
  • Exercise Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-E)
  • Religion Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-R)
  • Friendship Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-F)

Questionnaires

Main Questionnaire


Domain Specific Questionnaire(s)

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    Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A)

    This questionnaire concerns the reasons why children do their school work. The scale was developed for students in late elementary and middle school. (The comparable SRQ for adults is referred to as the Learning Self-Regulation Questionnaire.) Consequently, its format is slightly different from the format of the Self-Regulation Questionnaires intended for adults. First, the repsonses to each item are on a 4-point scale rather than a 7-point scale because we have found that more than 4 possible responses is not optimal for the children who complete the questionnare who are as young as about 8 years of age. Second, we typically have the children respond right on the questionnaire by circling the correct response rather than using an asnwer sheet. Again, this is easier, especially when doing a group administration to a class of students. Of course it is more work for the researcher to get the information off the questionnaires, but it is worth the trade off. Third, there are more items on the SRQs for children than the SRQs for adults in order to ensure good reliability. Fourth, the “very true” response comes first for each item, whereas on the adult questionnaire it comes last. To score the scale: Very True is scored 4; Sort of True is scored 3; Not Very True is scored 2; and Not at All True is scored 1. This way, a higher score will indicate a higher level of endorsement of that regulatory style. The SRQ-A uses four subscales: external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic motivation.


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    Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-P)

    This questionnaire concerns the reasons why children engage in various prosocial behaviors. The scale was developed for children in late elementary and middle school and uses the same format as the Academic Self- Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A), which is the other SRQ developed for children. As with the SRQ-A, the responses on this SRQ-P are on a 4-point scale (rather than the 7-point scale used for adults), and the very true response comes first for each item, so the scale is scored as follows: Very True is scored 4; Sort of True is scored 3; Not Very True is scored 2; and Not at All True is scored 1. This way, a higher score will indicate a higher level of endorsement of that regulatory style. The SRQ-P uses three subscales: external regulation, introjected regulation, and identified regulation. Because these kinds of behaviors result from internalization rather than being done naturally, there is not an intrinsic motivation subscale to this questionnaire.


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    Exercise Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-E)

    This questionnaire concerns the reasons why a person exercises regularly, does gymnastics, works out, or engages in other such physical activities. It is structured so that it asks one questions and provides responses that represent external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The basic issue concerns the degree to which one feels autonomous with respect to exercising or engaging in physical activity. Below are three versions of the scale, one each for working out, exercising regularly, and doing gymnastics. Each one is followed by information about scoring it. These questionnaire are slightly different from each other not only in terms of the question asked but also in terms of the items. The items are, of course, very similar--that is the introjected items on one scale are similar to the introjected items on the other scales. However, the three versions were developed by different researchers, and it seems that they are wholly comparable scales. Several studies using these questionnaires have recently been conducted, but none has yet been written for publication. Thus, at this time, there are no published research reports that have used these scales.


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    Religious Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-R)

    Also called Christian Religious Internalization Scale (CRIS) This questionnaire concerns the reasons why a person engages in religious behaviors. The questions were written for research with a Christian population, but could be easily adapted for other religions. The questionnaire asks why people engage in four religious behaviors, each of which is followed by three reasons. In all, there are 12 items on the SRQ-R. The questionnaire was developed and validated by Ryan, Rigby, and King, (1993). There is a long form of the questionnaire with 48 items, but analyses revealed that the current 12- item version is as psychometrically sound as the longer version and is far more economical. The scale has only two subscales: Introjected Regulation and Identified Regulation. Work with the longer scale revealed that these two subscales represented the dynamically meaningful reasons why people engage in religious behaviors and that the external regulation and intrinsic motivation subscales did not add to the validity of the scale. Below is the actual scale, followed by information about scoring.


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    Friendship Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-F)

    This questionnaire concerns the reasons why a person is in a particular friendship. It asks four questions about being friends with a particular person, and provides responses that represent external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and intrinsic motivation. The basic issue, of course, concerns the degree to which one feels autonomous with respect to participating in the friendship. Below is the actual scale, followed by information about scoring.


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Creator/Reference

Self-Regulation Questionnaires (SRQ)

(1989) Journal of Educational Psychology

Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school

Grolnick, W. S. Ryan, R. M. Joussemet, M. Koestner, R.


(1957) Psychological Reports

Objective tests as instruments of psychological theory

Loevinger, J.


(1989) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains

Ryan, R. M. Connell, J. P.


(2000) American Psychologist

Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being

Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.


(1996) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance

Williams, G. C. Grow, V. M. Freedman, Z. R. Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.


Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A)

Original SRQ-A (the standard version)

(1989) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains

Ryan, R. M. Connell, J. P.


Adapted SRQ-A (the version for students with LD)

(1992) Journal of Learning Disabilities

Autonomy and competence as motivational factors in students with learning disabilities and emotional handicaps

Deci, E. L. Hodges, R. Pierson, L. Tomassone, J.


Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ)

(1995) Addictive Behaviors

Initial motivations for alcohol treatment: Relations with patient characteristics, treatment involvement and dropout

Ryan, R. M. Plant, R. W. O'Malley, S.


(2004) Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology

Motivation, Autonomy Support, and Entity Beliefs: Their role in methadone maintenance treatment

Zeldman, A. Ryan, R. M. Fiscella, K.


Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)

(1997) Journal of Personality Assessment

Client Motivation for Therapy Scale: A measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation for therapy

Pelletier, L. G. Tuson, K. M. Haddad, N. K.


Learning Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-L)

(2000) Science Education

The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective

Black, A. E. Deci, E. L.


(1996) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory

Williams, G. C. Deci, E. L.


Religious Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-R)

(1993) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Two types of religious internalization and their relations to religious orientation and mental health

Ryan, R. M. Rigby, C. S. King, K.


Self-Regulation Questionnaire – Support version 2 (SRQ-S- II)

(2021) Journal of Intellectual Disability Research

Evaluating the self-determination continuum towards seeking support among people with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

Frielink, N. Schuengel, C. Embregts, P. J. C. M.



Validation Articles

Prosocial Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-P)

(1989) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains

Ryan, R. M. Connell, J. P.



Key Articles Using Questionnaires

Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-A)

(1991) Journal of Educational Psychology

The inner resources for school performance: Motivational mediators of children's perceptions of their parents

Grolnick, W. S. Ryan, R. M. Deci, E. L.


(1989) Journal of Educational Psychology

Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school

Grolnick, W. S. Ryan, R. M. Joussemet, M. Koestner, R.


(1987) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation

Grolnick, W. S. Ryan, R. M.


(1996) Journal of Educational Psychology

Children who do well in school: Individual differences in perceived competence and autonomy in above average children

Miserandino, M.


(1993) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

What motivates children's behavior and emotion? Joint effects of perceived control and autonomy in the academic domain

Patrick, B. C. Skinner, E. A. Connell, J. P.


Religious Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRQ-R)

(1999)

Measures of religiosity

Hill, P. C. Hood, R. W., Jr.