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Psychological Need Thwarting in the Sport Context (PNTS)

The questionnaire measure has been designed to tap the frustration of the three psychological needs in the sport environment. The term “thwarting” was used to name the scale because at the time it was the predominant term in the SDT literature to describe need deprivation. More recently, the term “frustration” has been more predominantly used.


Main Questionnaire


(2011) Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

Psychological need thwarting in the sport context: Assessing the darker sides of athletic experience

Bartholomew, K. J. Ntoumanis, N. Ryan, R. M. Thogersen-Ntoumani, C.