Organizations and Work

Featured Articles

Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Self-determination theory in human resource development: New directions and practical considerations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(2), 133-147. doi: 10.1177/1523422318756954

Research Reports

Huyghebaert, T., Gillet, N., Fernet, C., Lahiani, F.-J., & Fouquereau, E. (2018). Leveraging psychosocial safety climate to prevent ill-being: The mediating role of psychological need thwarting. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 111-125. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2018.03.010

Sandrin, E., & Gillet, N. (2018). Determinants and consequences of workaholism among French workers. Psychologie Française, 63, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.psfr.2016.06.001

Rigby, C. S., & Ryan, R. M. (2018). Self-determination theory in human resource development: New directions and practical considerations. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(2), 133-147. doi: 10.1177/1523422318756954

Gillet, N., Becker, C., Lafrenière, M.-A. K., Huart, I., & Fouquereau, E. (2017). Organizational support, job resources, soldiers’ motivational profiles, work engagement, and affect. Military Psychology, 29, 418-433. doi: 10.1037/mil0000179

Gillet, N., Morin, A. J. S., Cougot, B., & Gagné, M. (2017). Workaholism profiles: Associations with determinants, correlates, and outcomes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 90(4), 559–586. doi: 10.1111/joop.12185

Olafsen, A. H. (2017). The implications of need-satisfying work climates on state mindfulness in a longitudinal analysis of work outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 41 (1), 22-37. doi: 10.1007/s11031-016-9592-4

Deci, E. L., Olafsen, A. H., & Ryan, R. M. (2017). Self-determination theory in work organizations: The state of a science. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 4, 19-43. doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032516-113108

Olafsen, A. H., Niemiec, C. P., Halvari, H., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2017). On the dark side of work: A longitudinal analysis using self-determination theory. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26(2), 275-285. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2016.1257611

Thibault Landry, A., Kindlein, J., Trépanier, S.-G., Forest, J., Zigarmi, D., Houson, D., & Brodbeck, F. C (2016). Why individuals want money matters: Using self-determination theory to explain the differential relations between motives for making money and employee psychological health. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 226-242. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9532-8

Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Huyghebaert, T., & Colombat, P. (2016). Effets du soutien organisationnel perçu et des caractéristiques de l'emploi sur l'anxiété au travail et l'épuisement professionnel: Le rôle médiateur de la satisfaction des besoins psychologiques. Psychologie Française, 61, 73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.psfr.2014.05.004

Kuvaas, B., Buch, R., Gagné, M., Dysvik, A., & Forest, J. (2016). Do you get what you pay for? Sales incentives and implications for motivation and changes in turnover intention and work effort. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 667-680. doi: 10.1007/s11031-016-9574-6

Sandrin, E., & Gillet, N. (2016). Le workaholisme et l'engagement dans les études: Des mécanismes explicatifs dans les relations entre la frustration des besoins psychologiques et le mal-être des étudiants. Pratiques Psychologiques, 22(4), 317-334. doi: 10.1016/j.prps.2016.02.003

Kullgren, J. T., Williams, G. C., Resnicow, K., An, L. C., Rothberg, A., Volpp, K. G., & Heisler, M. (2016). The promise of tailoring incentives for healthy behaviors. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 9(1), 2-16. doi: 10.1108/IJWHM-12-2014-0060

Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Lafrenière, M.-A. K., & Huyghebaert, T. (2016). Examining the roles of work autonomous and controlled motivations on satisfaction and anxiety as a function of role ambiguity. The Journal of Psychology, 150, 644-655. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2016.1154811

Spehar, I., Forest, J., & Stenseng, F. (2016). Passion for work, job satisfaction, and the mediating role of belongingness. Journal of Organizational Psychology, 8, 17-26.

Liu, D., Jiang, K., Shalley, C. E., Keem, S., & Zhou, J. (2016). Motivational mechanisms of employee creativity: A meta-analytic examination and theoretical extension of the creativity literature. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 137, 236-263. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2016.08.001

Howard, J., Gagné, M., Morin, A. J. S., & van den Broeck, A. (2016). Motivation profiles at work: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95, 74-89. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2016.07.004

Trépanier, S.-G., Forest, J., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2015). On the psychological and motivational processes linking job characteristics to employee functioning: Insights from self-determination theory. Work and Stress, 29, 286-305. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2015.1074957

Gillet, N., Forest, J., Benabou, C., & Bentein, K. (2015). The effects of organizational factors, psychological need satisfaction and thwarting, and affective commitment on workers’ well-being and turnover intentions. Le Travail Humain, 78, 119-140. doi: 10.3917/th.782.0119

Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Huyghebaert, T., & Colombat, P. (2015). The effects of job demands and organizational resources through psychological need satisfaction and thwarting. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, 1-19. doi: 10.1017/sjp.2015.30

Gillet, N., Forest, J., Girouard, S., & Crevier-Braud, L. (2015). Justice organisationnelle et intentions de quitter: Le rôle médiateur du bien-être eudémonique. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 36, 127-144.

Olafsen, A. H., Halvari, H., Forest, J., & Deci, E. L. (2015). Show them the money? The role of pay, autonomy support, and justice in a self-determination theory model of intrinsic work motivation. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56(4), 447-457. doi: 0.1111/sjop.12211

Gillet, N., Lafrenière, M.-A., Huyghebaert, T., & Fouquereau, E. (2015). Autonomous and controlled reasons underlying achievement goals: Implications for the 3 x 2 achievement goal model in educational and work settings. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 858-875. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9505-y

Guntert, S. (2015). The impact of work design, autonomy support, and strategy on employee outcomes: A differentiated perspective on self-determination at work. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 99-103. doi: 10.1007/s11031-014-9412-7

Wilkesmann, U. (2015). Imaginary contradictions of university governance. In I. Welpe, J. Wollersheim, S. Ringelhan & M. Osterloh (Eds.), Incentives and Performance (pp. 189 - 205). Switzerland: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-09785-5_12

Trépanier, S., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2014). A longitudinal investigation of workplace bullying, basic need satisfaction, and employee functioning. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 20, 105-116. doi: 1076-8998/15

Nie, Y., Chua, B. L., Yeung, A. S., Ryan, R. M., & Chan, W. Y. (2014). The importance of autonomy support and the mediating role of work motivation for well-being: Testing self-determination theory in a Chinese work organisation. International Journal of Psychology, 50, 245-255. doi: 10.1002/ijop.12110

Dubreuil, P., Forest, J., & Courcy, F. (2014). From strengths use to work performance: The role of harmonious passion, subjective vitality, and concentration. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 335-349. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2014.898318

Janssen, S., Van Vurren, M., & De Jong, M. D. T. (2014). Motives to mentor: Self-focused, protégé-focused, relationship-focused, organization-focused, and unfocused motives. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85, 266-275. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2014.08.002

Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980-1008. doi: 10.1037/a0035661

Wilkesmann, U., & Schmid, C. J. (2014). Intrinsic and internalized modes of teaching motivation. Evidence-based HRM, 2, 6-27. doi: 10.1108/EBHRM-07-2013-0022

Trépanier, S.-G., Fernet, C., Austin, S., Forest, J., & Vallerand, R. J. (2014). Linking job demands and resources to burnout and work engagement: Does passion for work underlie these differential relationships?. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 353-366. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9384-z

Rosen, C., Ferris, L., Brown, D., Chen, Y., & Yan, M. (2014). Perceptions of organizational politics: A need satisfaction paradigm. Organization Science, 1026-1055. doi: 10.1287/orsc.2013.0857

Trépanier, S. G., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2013). Workplace psychological harassment among Canadian nurses: A descriptive study. Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 383-396. doi: 10.1177/1359105312443401

Trépanier, S. G., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2013). The moderating role of autonomous motivation in the job demands-strain relation: A two sample study. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 93-105. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9290-9

Janssen, S., Van Vuuren, M., & De Jong, M. D. T. (2013). Identifying support functions in developmental relationships: A self-determination perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82, 20-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2012.09.005

Fernet, C., Austin, S., Trépanier, S. G., & Dussault, M. (2013). How do job characteristics contribute to burnout? Exploring the distinct mediating roles of perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 123-137. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2011.632161

Fernet, C. (2013). The role of work motivation in psychological health. Canadian Psychology, 54, 72-74. doi: 10.1037/a0031058

Gillet, N., Colombat, P., Michinov, E., Provost, A. M., & Fouquereau, E. (2013). Procedural justice, supervisor autonomy support, work satisfaction, organizational identification, and job performance: The mediating role of need satisfaction and perceived organizational support. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69, 2560-2571. doi: 10.1111/jan.12144

Gillet, N., Huart, I., Colombat, P., & Fourquereau, E. (2013). Perceived organizational support, motivation, and engagement among police officers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 44, 46-55. doi: 10.1037/a0030066

Dysvik, A., Kuvaas, B., & Gagné, M. (2013). An investigation of the unique relations between basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1050-1064. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12068

Mueller, M. B., & Lovell, G. P. (2013). Senior executives as risk factors. In G. M. Babu, G. Vani & N. Panchanatham (Eds.), Connoisseur strategies for Global Business Management ( Trends and Techniques).Bangalore, India: Archers and Elevators Publishing House.

Mueller, M. B., & Lovell, G. P. (2013). Relatedness need satisfaction in senior executives. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 105-135.

Marescaux, E., De Winne, S., & Sels, L. (2013). HR practices and HRM outcomes: the role of basic need satisfaction. Personnel Review, 42, 4-27. doi: 10.1108/00483481311285200

Van Den Broeck, A., Lens, W., De Witte, Hans, & Van Coillie, H. (2013). Unraveling the importance of the quantity and the quality of workers’ motivation for well-being: A person-centered perspective. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82, 69-78. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2012.11.005

Fernet, C., Guay, F., Senecal, C., & Austin, S. (2012). Predicting intraindividual changes in teacher burnout: The role of perceived school environment and motivational factors. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28, 514-525.

Mitchell, J. I., Gagné, M., Beaudry, A., & Dyer, L. (2012). The role of perceived organizational support, distributive justice and motivation in reactions to new information technology. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 729-738.

Yoo, S. J., Han, S., & Huang, W. (2012). The roles of intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators in promoting e-learning in the workplace: A case from South Korea. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 942-950. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2011.12.015

Brien, M., Forest, J., Mageau, G. A., Boudrias, J. S., Desrumaux, P., Brunet, L., & Morin, E. (2012). The basic psychological needs at work scale: Measurement invariance between Canada and France. Applied Psychology: Heath and Well-Being, 4(2), 167-187. doi: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2012.01067.x

Boivie, S., Graffin, S. D., & Pollock, T. G. (2012). Time for me to fly: Predicting director exit at large firms. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 1334-1359. doi: 10.5465/amj.2010.1083

Fernet, C., Austin, S., & Vallerand, R. J. (2012). The effects of work motivation on employee exhaustion and commitment: An extension of the JD-R model. Work & Stress, 26, 213-219. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2012.713202

Grant, A. M., & Berry, J. W. (2011). The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 73-96.

Grant, A. M., Nurmohamed, S., Ashford, S. J., & Dekas, K. D. (2011). The performance implications of ambivalent initiative: The interplay of autonomous and controlled motivations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 116, 241-251.

Forest, J., Mageau, G. A., Sarrazin, P., & Morin, E. M. (2011). “Work is my passion”: The different affective, behavioural, and cognitive consequences of harmonious and obsessive passion toward work. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28, 27–40. doi: 10.1002/CJAS.170

Van den Broeck, A., Schreurs, B., De Witte, H., Vansteenkiste, M., Germeys, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Understanding workaholics’ motivations: A self-determination perspective. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 60, 600–621.

van Beek, I., Taris, T. W., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2011). Workaholic and work engaged employees: Dead ringers or worlds apart?. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 468–482.

Fernet, C., Gagné, M., & Austin, S. (2010). When does quality of relationships with coworkers predict burnout over time? The moderating role of work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 1163-1180.

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & De Witte, H. (2010). Unemployed individuals' work values and job flexibility: An explanation from expectancy-value theory and self-determination theory. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 59, 296-317.

Laran, J., & Janiszewski, C. (2010). Work or fun? How task construal and completion influence regulatory behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 000.

Ferris, D. L., Lian, H., Brown, D. J., Pang, F. X., & Keeping, L. M. (2010). Self-esteem and job performance: The moderating role of self-esteem contingencies. Personnel Psychology, 63, 561-593.

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2010). Capturing autonomy, competence, and relatedness at work: Construction and initial validation of the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 981-1002.

Gagné, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M. H., Aubé, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The motivation at work scale: Validation evidence in two languages. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 628–646.

Meyer, J. P., & Maltin, E. R. (2010). Employee commitment and well-being: A critical review, theoretical framework and research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 323–337.

DeVoe, S. E., & Pfeffer, J. (2010). The stingy hour: How accounting for time affects volunteering. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 470-483.

Kenny, M. E., Walsh-Blair, L. Y., Blustein, D. L., Bempechat, J., & Seltzer, J. (2010). Achievement motivation among urban adolescents: Work hope, autonomy support, and achievement-related beliefs. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 205–212.

Burstyn, Jonasi, L., & Wild, T. C. (2010). Obtaining compliance with occupational health and safety regulations: a multilevel study using self-determination theory. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 20(4), 271-287. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603121003663461

Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., Lian, H., & Keeping, L. M. (2009). When does self-esteem relate to deviant behavior? The role of contingencies of self-worth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 1345-1353.

Kuvaas, B. (2009). A test of hypotheses derived from self-determination theory among public sector employees. Employee Relations, 31, 39-56.

Blanchard, C. M., Tremblay, M. A., Mask, L., & Perras, M. G. M. (2009). A combination of work environment factors and individual difference variables in work interfering with family. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 2, 63-90. doi: 10.1108/17538350910946018

Foss, N. J., Minbaeva, D. B., Pedersen, T., & Reinholt, M. (2009). Encouraging knowledge sharing among employees: How job design matters. Human Resource Management, 48, 871–893.

Meyer, J. P., & Gagné, M. (2008). Employee engagement from a self-determination theory perspective. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1, 60-62.

Roca, J. C., & Gagné, M. (2008). Understanding e-learning continuance intention in the workplace: A self-determination theory perspective. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 1585–1604.

Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 48-58.

Grant, A. M. (2008). The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 108-124.

Gagné, M., Chemolli, E., Forest, J., & Koestner, R. (2008). A temporal analysis of the relation between organisational commitment and work motivation. Psychologica Belgica, 48, 219-241.

Vansteenkiste, M., Neyrinck, B., Niemiec, C. P., Soenens, B., De Witte, H., & Van den Broeck, A. (2007). On the relations among work value orientations, psychological need satisfaction, and job outcomes: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 251-277.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, H., & Feather, N .T. (2005). Understanding unemployed people's job search behaviour, unemployment experience and well-being: A comparison of expectancy-value theory and self-determination theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 269-287.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, H., & Feather, N. T. (2005). Understanding unemployed people's search behavior, unemployment experience and well-being: A comparison of expectancy-value theory and self-determination theory. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 1-20.

Guay, F. (2005). Motivations underlying career decision-making activities: The Career Decision-Making Autonomy Scale (CDMAS). Journal of Career Assessment, 13, 77-97.

Otis, N., & Pelletier, L. G. (2005). A motivational model of daily hassles, physical symptoms, and future work intentions among police officers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2193-2214.

Lynch, M. F., Plant, R. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2005). Psychological needs and threat to safety: Implications for staff and patients in a psychiatric hospital for youth. Professional Psychology, 36, 415-425.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, S., De Witte, H., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The “why” and “why not” of job search behavior: Their relation to searching, unemployment experience, and well-being. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 345-363.

Fernet, C., Guay, F., & Senecal, C. (2004). Adjusting to job demands: The role of work, self-determination and job control in predicting burnout. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 39-56.

Guay, F., Senecal, C., Gauthier, L., & Fernet, C. (2003). Predicting career indecision: A self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 165-177.

Richer, S. F., Blanchard, C. M., & Vallerand, R. J. (2002). A motivational model of work turnover. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 32, 2089-.

Richer, S. F., Blanchard, C., & Vallerand, R. J. (2002). A motivational model of work turnover. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 2089-2113.

Senecal, C., Vallerand, R. J., & Guay, F. (2001). Antecedents and outcomes of work-family conflict: toward a motivational model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 176-186.

Gagné, M., Koestner, R., & Zuckerman, M. (2000). Facilitating acceptance of organizational change: The importance of self-determination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1843-1852.

Gagné, M., Senecal, C., & Koestner, R. (1997). Proximal job characteristics, feelings of empowerment, and intrinsic motivation: A multidimensional model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 1222-1240.

Richer, S. F., & Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Supervisors' interactional styles and subordinates' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 707-722.

Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: Main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789-1805.

Kasser, T., Davey, J., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). Motivation and employee-supervisor discrepancies in a psychiatric vocational rehabilitation settings. Rehabilitation Psychology, 37, 175-187.

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Pelletier, L. G., & Aitken, N. (2014). Encouraging Environmental Actions in Employees and in the Working Environment: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory (pp. 314-334). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Dagenais-Desmarais, V., Forest, J., Girouard, S., & Crevier-Braud, L. (2014). The importance of need supportive relationships for motivation and well-being at work. In N. Weinstein (Ed.), Human motivation and interpersonal relationship: Theory, research, and application (pp. 263-297). Netherlands: Springer.

Vallerand, R. J., Houlfort, N., & Forest, J. (2014). Passion for work: Determinants and outcomes. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory (pp. 85-105). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Forest, J., Gilbert, M.-H, Beaulieu, G., Le Brock, P., & Gagné, M. (2014). Translating research results in economic terms: An application of economic utility analysis using SDT-based interventions. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory (pp. 335-346). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). The importance of universal psychological needs for understanding motivation in the workplace. In M. Gagne, The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 13-32). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Spence, G. B., & Deci, E. L. (2013). Self-determination theory within coaching contexts: Supporting motives and goals that promote well-being and effective performance. In Clutterbuck, D. Megginson, & S. David (Eds.), Beyond Goals: Effective Strategies for Coaching and Mentoring (pp. 85-108). London: Gower Publishing.

Gagné, M., & Bhave, D. (2011). Autonomy in the workplace: An essential ingredient to employee engagement and well-being in every culture. In V. I. Chirkov, R. M. Ryan & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Human autonomy in cross-cultural context: Perspectives on the psychology of agency, freedom, and well-being (pp. 163-187). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.

Gagné, M. (2009). A model of knowledge sharing motivation. Human Resource Management, 48, 571-589.

Gagné, M., & Forest, J. (2008). The study of compensation systems through the lens of self-determination theory: Reconciling 35 years of debate. Canadian Psychology, 49, 225–232.

Stone, D., Wier, B., & Bryant, S. (2007). Does financial literacy contribute to happiness?. The CPA Journal, 77, (online).

Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362.

Vroom, V. H., & Deci, E. L. (1992). Management and motivation, Second Edition. London: Penguin. doi: 0