Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)
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The concept of mindfulness has a long lineage, dating back more than 2500 years, and writings in SDT have discussed the importance of this, and related qualities of consciousness for behavioral self-regulation and well-being. Mindfulness is an open or receptive awareness of and attention to what is taking place in the present. The construct has been operationalized in dispositional terms by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), a 15-item self-report instrument with a single factor. The scale has been validated in college, working adult, and cancer patient populations. A description of the scale and its validation can be found in Brown and Ryan (2003). The scale is shown below, followed by information about scoring.
Brown, K.W. and Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: The role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822-848.
Other selected writings on mindfulness
Brown, K.W. and Ryan, R.M. (2004). Fostering healthy self-regulation from within and without: A Self-Determination Theory perspective. In P.A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 105-124) . New York, NY: Wiley.
Hodgins, H.S. & Knee, C.R. (2002). The integrating self and conscious experience. In E.L. Deci & R.M. Ryan (Eds), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 87-100). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Ryan, R.M. & Deci, E.L. (2004). Autonomy is no illusion: Self-Determination Theory and the empirical study of authenticity, awareness, and will. In J. Greenberg, S. Koole & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of Experimental Existential Psychology (pp. 449-479). New York, NY: Guilford.
Ryan, R.M. and Brown, K.W. (2003). Why we don’t need self-esteem: On fundamental needs, contingent love, and mindfulness. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 27-82.
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