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To download the copyrighted questionnaires on the CSDT web site, you must agree to our terms and conditions.

All academic use is permitted, but you must obtain permission from the Center for Self-Determination Theory for commercial use.

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Language Learning Questionnaires (LLQ)

Various scales are used in studies of language learning, often in languages other than English. You can find a selection here.



Language Learning Orientation Scale (LLOS) Japanese

(2003) Best of Language Learning (Supplément S-1): Attitudes, Orientations, and Motivation in Language Learning

Why are you learning a second language? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory

Noels, K. A. Pelletier, L. G. Clément, R. Vallerand, R. J.

Language Learning Orientation Scale (LLOS) Japanese & Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (BPNSFS) Japanese

(2022) Language Learning

Measuring foreign language students’ self‐determination: A Rasch validation study

Leeming, P. Harris, J.

Basic Psychological Needs Frustration in Second Language (BPNF-L2) Arabic

(2023) Acta Psychologica

Introducing the Basic Psychological Needs Frustration in Second Language Scale (BPNF-L2): Examining its factor structure and effect on L2 motivation and achievement

Alamer, A. Morin, A. J. S. Alrabai, F. Alharfi, A.

Basic Psychological Needs in Second Language Scale (BPN-L2) Arabic

(2022) Studies in Second Language Acquisition

Basic psychological needs, motivational orientations, effort, and vocabulary knowledge: A comprehensive model

Alamer, A.