Internalization and Self-regulatory Styles

Research Reports

Di Domenico, S. I., Le, A., Liu, A., Ayaz, H., & Fournier, M. A. (2016). Basic psychological needs and neurophysiological responsiveness to decisional conflict: an event-related potential study of integrative self processes. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 16, 848-865. doi: 10.3758/s13415-016-0436-1

Ricard, N. C., & Pelletier, L. G. (2016). Dropping out of high school: The role of parent and teacher self-determination support, reciprocal friendships, and academic motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 44-45, 32-40. doi:

Gravel, E. E., Pelletier, L. G., & Reissing, E. D. (2016). "Doing it" for the right reasons: Validation of a measurement of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation for sexual relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 92, 164-173. doi:

Block, R., Niemiec, C. P., Rigby, C. S., & Williams, G. C. (2016). Virtual clinician need support, health-behavior change, and its maintenance. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 10(3), 667. doi: 10.1016/j.jacl.2016.03.033

Howard, J., Gagné, M., Morin, A. J. S., & van den Broeck, A. (2016). Motivation profiles at work: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95, 74-89. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2016.07.004

Trépanier, S.-G., Forest, J., Fernet, C., & Austin, S. (2015). On the psychological and motivational processes linking job characteristics to employee functioning: Insights from self-determination theory. Work and Stress, 29, 286-305. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2015.1074957

Hagger, M. S., Sultan, S., Hardcastle, S. J.,, & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2015). Perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation toward mathematics activities in educational and out-of-school contexts is related to mathematics homework behavior and attainment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 111-123. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.12.002

Hardy, S. A., Dollahite, D. C., Johnson, N., & Christensen, J. B. (2015). Adolescent motivations to engage in prosocial behaviors and abstain from health-risk behaviors: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Personality, 83, 479-490. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12123

Stenseng, F., Forest, J., & Curran, T. (2015). Positive emotions in recreational sport activities: The role of passion and belongingness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 1117-1129. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9547-y

Fernet, C., Austin, S., Gagné, M., & Forest, J. (2015). Extending the scope of the motivational effect of transformational leadership on employee functioning: The role of employees’ perceived job characteristics and motivation. Work and Stress, 29, 11-31. doi: 10.1080/02678373.2014.1003998

Chan, D. K. C., Yang, S. X., Mullan, B., Zhang, X., Du, X., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Preventing the spread of H1N1 influenza infection during a pandemic: autonomy-supportive advice versus controlling instruction. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 38, 416-426. doi: 10.1007/s10865-014-9616-z

Chan, D. K. C., Yang, S. X., Hamamura, T., Sultan, S., Xing, S.,, Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). In-lecture learning motivation predicts students’ motivation, intention, and behaviour for after-lecture learning: Examining the trans-contextual model across universities from UK, China, and Pakistan. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 908-925. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9506-x

Chan, D. K. C., Dimmock, J. A., Donovan, R. J., Lentillon-Kaestner, V., Hardcastle, S., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Self-determined motivation in sport predicts motivation and intention of anti-doping behaviors: A perspective from the trans-contextual model. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 315-322. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2014.04.001

Jungert, T., Landry, R., Joussemet, M., Mageau, G. A., Gingras, I., & Koestner, R. (2015). Autonomous and controlled motivation for parenting: Associations with parent and child outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1932-1942. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9993-5

Milyavskaya, M., Inzlicht, M., Hope, N., & Koestner, R. (2015). Saying ‘No’ to temptation: ‘want-to’ motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 677-693. doi:

Guertin, C., Rocchi, M., Pelletier, L. G., Émond, C., & Lalande, G. (2015). The role of motivation and eating regulation on the physical and psychological health of cardiovascular disease patients. Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 543-555. doi: 10.1177/1359105315573471

Lavergne, K., & Pelletier, L. G. (2015). Predicting individual differences in the choice of strategy to compensate for attitude-behaviour inconsistencies in the environmental domain. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 44, 135-148. doi:

Guay, F., Morin, A., Litalien, D., & Valois, P. (2015). Application of exploratory structural equation modeling to evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale. The Journal of Experimental Education, 83(1), 51-82. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2013.876231

Hagger, M. S., Rentzelas, P., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2014). Effects of individualist and collectivist group norms and choice on intrinsic motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 215–223. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9373-2

Roth, G., Benita, M., Amrani, C., Shachar, B.-H., Asoulin, H., Moed, A., Bibi, U., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2014). Integration of negative emotional experience versus suppression: Addressing the question of adaptive functioning. Emotion, 14(5), 908-919. doi:

Milyavskaya, M., Nadolny, D, & Koestner, R. (2014). Where do self-concordant goals come from? The role of domain-specific psychological need satisfaction.. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 700-711. doi: 10.1177/0146167214524445

Trépanier, S.-G., Fernet, C., Austin, S., Forest, J., & Vallerand, R. J. (2014). Linking job demands and resources to burnout and work engagement: Does passion for work underlie these differential relationships?. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 353-366. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9384-z

Nascimento Junior, J. R., Vissoci, J. R. N., Balbim, G., Moreira, C. R., Pelletier, L. G., & Vieira, L. F. (2014). Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties analysis of the Sport Motivation Scale-II for the Brazilian context. Revista da Educação Física, 25, 441-458. doi:

Wang, Z., & Gagné, M. (2013). A Chinese-Canadian cross-cultural investigation of transformational leadership, autonomous motivation and collectivistic value. Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, 20, 134-142. doi: 10.1177/1548051812465895

Nail, P., Di Domenico, S., & MacDonald, G. (2013). Proposal of a double diamond model of social response. 17, 1-19. doi: 10.1037/a0030997

Weinstein, N., Przybylski, A. K., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). The integrative process: New research and future directions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 69-74. doi: 10.1177/0963721412468001

Soenens, B., Neyrinck, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Dezutter, J., Hutsebaut, D., & Duriez, B. (2012). How do perceptions of God as autonomy-supportive or controlling relate to individuals’ social-cognitive processing of religious contents? The role of motives for religious behavior. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 22, 1-21.

Legault, L., Al-Khindi, & Inzlincht, I. (2012). Preserving integrity in the face of performance threat: Self-affirmation enhances neurophysiological responsiveness to errors.. Psychological Science, 23, 1455-1460. doi: 10.1177/0956797612448483

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., & Lafrenière, M. A. K. (2012). Intrinsic and extrinsic school motivation as a function of age: The mediating role of autonomy support. Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 15, 77–95. doi: 10.1007/s11218-011-9170-2

Van Petegem, S., Beyers, W., Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2012). On the association between adolescent autonomy and psychosocial functioning: Examining decisional (in)dependence from a self-determination theory perspective. Developmental Psychology, 48, 76-88.

Pavey, L., Greitemeyer, T., & Sparks, P. (2012). “I help because I want to, not because you tell me to”: Empathy increases autonomously motivated helping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 681–689.

Roth, G., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Bibi, U. (2011). Prevention of school bullying: The important role of autonomy-supportive teaching and internalization of pro-social values. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 654–666.

Miller, J. G., Das, R., & Chakravarthy, S. (2011). Culture and the role of choice in agency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 46–61.

Kirkegaard Thomsen, D., Tønnesvang, J., Schnieber, A., & Hammershøj Olesen, M. (2011). Do people ruminate because they haven’t digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 105–117.

de Bilde, J., Vansteenkiste, M., & Lens, W. (2011). Understanding the association between future time perspective and self-regulated learning through the lens of self-determination theory. Learning and Instruction, 21, 332-344.

Weinstein, N., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Motivational determinants of integrating positive and negative past identities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 527-544. doi: 10.1037/a0022150

Smith, A., Ntoumanis, N., Duda, J. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). Goal striving, coping, and well-being in sport: A prospective investigation of the self-concordance model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 124-145.

Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Dunkel, C., Papini, D., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). Are all identity commitments created equally? The importance of motives for late adolescents’ personal adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 358-369.

Halvari, A., Halvari, H., Bjørnebekk, G., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Motivation and anxiety for dental treatment: Testing a self-determination theory model of oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 15-33. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9154-0

Vansteenkiste, M., Smeets, S., Soenens, B., Lens, W., Matos, L., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals: Their relations to perfectionism and educational outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 333–353. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9188-3

Koestner, R., Taylor, G., Losier, G. F., & Fichman, L. (2010). Self-regulation and adaptation during and after college: A one-year prospective study. Personality & Individual Difference, 49, 869-873. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.019

Smits, I., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyckx, K., & Goossens, L. (2010). Why do adolescents gather information or stick to parental norms? Examining autonomous and controlled motives behind adolescents’ identity style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 1343–1356.

Bégin, C., & Guay, F. (2010). Construction et validation de l'échelle de motivation à l'égard de l'orthographe (ÉMO). Mesure et évaluation en éducation, 33(1), 63-77. doi:

Renaud-Dube, A., Taylor, G., Lekes, N., Koestner, R., & Guay, F. (2010). Adolescents' motivation toward the environment: Age-related trends and correlates. Canadian Journal of Bahavioural Science, 42, 194-199. doi: doi:10.1037/a0018596

Renaud-Dubé, A., Taylor, G., Lekes, N., Koestner, R., & Guay, F. (2010). Adolescents’ motivation toward the environment: Age-related trends and correlates. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 42(3), 194-199. doi:

Laran, J., & Janiszewski, C. (2010). Work or fun? How task construal and completion influence regulatory behavior. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 000.

Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., Roy, A., & Litalien, D. (2010). Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement: Mediating and additive effects. Learning and Individual Differences, 20(6), 644-653. doi:

Gauthier, L., Guay, F., Senécal, C., & Pierce, T. (2010). Women's depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood: The role of competence, relatedness, and autonomy. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(8), 1145-1156. doi:

Garcia-Mas, A., Sousa, C., Palou, P., Gili, M., Ponseti, X., Borras, P. A., Vidal, J., Cruz, J., Torregrosa, M., & Villamarín, F. (2010). Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13, 609-616.

Silva, M. N., Vieira, P. N., Coutinho, S. R., Minderico, C. S., Matos, M. G., Sardinha, L. B., & Teixeira, P. J. (2010). Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: A randomized controlled trial in women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 110-122.

Chatzisarantis, N. L., Hagger, M. S., & Wang, C. K. (2010). Evaluating the effects of implementation intention and self concordance on behaviour. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 705-718.

Williams, G. C., Niemiec, C. P., Patrick, H., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The importance of supporting autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 315-324.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2009). Should parental prohibition of adolescents’ peer relationships be prohibited?. Personal Relationships, 16, 507-530.

Hardy, S. A., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Carlo, G. (2008). Parenting dimensions and adolescents' internalization of moral values. Journal of Moral Education, 37, 205-223. doi: 10.1080/03057240802009512

Katz, I., Assor, A., & Kanat-Maymon, Y. (2008). A projective assessment of autonomous motivation in children: Correlational and experimental evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 109-119. doi: 10.1007/s11031-008-9086-0

Houser-Marko, L., & Sheldon, K. M. (2008). Eyes on the prize or nose to the grindstone? The effects of level of goal evaluation on mood and motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1556-1569.

Turban, D., Tan, H., & Brown, K. G. (2007). Antecedents and outcomes of perceived locus of causality: An application of self-determination theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 2376-2404.

Legault, L., Green-Demers, I., Grant, P., & Chung, J. (2007). On the self-regulation of implicit and explicit prejudice: A self-determination theory perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 732-749.

Roth, G., Assor, A., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Kaplan, H. (2007). Autonomous motivation for teaching: How self-determined teaching may lead to self-determined learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 761-774.

Malmberg, L., & Little, T. D. (2007). Profiles of ability, effort, and difficulty: Relationships with worldviews, motivation and adjustment. Learning and Instruction, 17, 739-754.

Chirkov, V. I., Vansteenkiste, M., Tao, R., & Lynch, M. F. (2007). The role of self-determined motivation and goals for the study abroad in the adaptation of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31, 199-222.

Downie, M., Chau, S. N., Koestner, R., Barrios, M., Rip, B., & Sawsan, M. (2007). The relations of parental autonomy support to cultural internalization and well-being on immigrants and sojourners. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 241-249.

Sheldon, K. M., & Schachtman, T. (2007). Obligations, internalization, and excuse making: Integrating the triangle model and self-determination theory. Journal of Personality, 75, 359-381.

Powers, T., Koestner, R., & Zuroff, D. C. (2007). Self-criticism, goal motivation, and goal progress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 826-840.

Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., Senecal, C., Larose, S., & Deschenes, A. (2006). Distinguishing developmental from chronic career indecision: Self-efficacy, autonomy, and social support. Journal of Career Assessment, 14, 235-255.

Burton, K. D., Lydon, J. E., D'Alessandro, D. U., & Koestner, R. (2006). The differential effects of intrinsic and identified motivation on well-being and performance: Prospective, experimental and implicit approaches to self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 750-762.

Legault, L., Green-Demers, I., & Pelletier, L. G. (2006). Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of academic amotivation and social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 567-582. doi: 10.1037/0022-D663.98.3.567

Wild, T. C., Cunningham, J. A., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). Social pressure, coercion, and client engagement at treatment entry: A self-determination theory perspective. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1858-1872.

Niemiec, C. P., Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Bernstein, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). The antecedents and consequences of autonomous self-regulation for college: A self-determination theory perspective on socialization. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 761-775.

Baumann, N., & Kuhl, J. (2005). How to resist temptation: The effects of external control versus autonomy support on self-regulatory dynamics. Journal of Personality, 73, 443-470.

Otis, N., Grouzet, F. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (2005). Latent motivational change in an academic setting: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 170-183.

Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2005). Directly controlling teachers' behaviors as predictors of poor motivation and engagement in girls and boys: The role of anger and anxiety. Learning and Instruction, 15, 397-413.

Ratelle, C. F., Larose, S., Guay, F., & Senecal, C. (2005). Perceptions of parental involvement and support as predictors of college students' persistence in a Science Curriculum. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 286-293.

Ratelle, C. F., Baldwin, M., & Vallerand, R. J. (2005). On the cued activation of situational motivation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 482-487.

Downie, M., Koestner, R., ElGeledi, S., & Cree, K. (2004). The impact of cultural internalization and integration on well-being among tricultural individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 305-314.

Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, S., De Witte, H., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The “why” and “why not” of job search behavior: Their relation to searching, unemployment experience, and well-being. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 345-363.

Kashdan, T. B., & Fincham, F .D. (2004). Facilitating curiosity: A social and self-regulatory perspective for scientifically based interventions. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 482-503). New Jersey: Wiley.

Pelletier, L. G., Dion, S. C., Slovenic-D'Angelo, M., & Reid, R. (2004). Why do you regulate what you eat?  Relationship between forms of regulation, eating behaviors, sustained dietary behavior change, and psychological adjustment. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 245-277.

Fernet, C., Guay, F., & Senecal, C. (2004). Adjusting to job demands: The role of work, self-determination and job control in predicting burnout. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 39-56.

Ratelle, C. F., Guay, F., Larose, S., & Senecal, C. (2004). Family correlates of trajectories of academic motivation during a school transition: A semiparametric group-based approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 743-754.

Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C. M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Léonard, M., & Gagné, M. (2003). Les passions de l'ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756-767.

Koestner, R., Lekes, N., Powers, T. A., & Chicoine, E. (2002). Attaining personal goals: Self-concordance plus implementation intentions equals success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 231-244.

Kim, Y., Deci, E. L., & Zuckerman, M. (2002). Development of the self-regulation of withholding negative emotions questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 316-336.

Losier, G. F., Perreault, S., Koestner, R., & Vallerand, R. J. (2001). Examining individual differences in the internalization of political values: Validation of the Self-determination Scale of Political Motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 41-61.

Pierce, T., Lydon, J. E., & Yang, S. (2001). Enthusiasm and moral commitment: What sustains family caregivers of those with dementia?. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 29-41.

Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. M. (2000). On the assessment of situational intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS). Motivation and Emotion, 24, 175-213.

Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740-756.

, Paradise, A. W., Whitaker, D. J., Wheatman, S. R., & Goldman, B. N. (2000). Master of one's psychological domain? Not likely if one's self-esteem is unstable. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1297-1305.

Losier, G. F., & Koestner, R. (1999). Intrinsic versus identified regulation in distinct political campaigns: The consequences of following politics for pleasure versus personal meaningfulness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 287-298.

Asakawa, K., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1998). Feelings of connectedness and internalization of values in Asian American. Adolescents Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 121-144.

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing autonomous and controlling goals on effort and attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 546-557.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1319-1331.

Ryan, R. M. (1998). Human psychological needs and the issues of volition, control and regulatory focus. In J. Heckhausen & C. Dweck (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp. 114-133). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vallerand, R. J., Fortier, M. S., & Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high-school drop out. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1161-1176.

Pelletier, L. G., Tuson, K. M., & Haddad, N. K. (1997). Client Motivation for Therapy Scale: A measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation for therapy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 414-435.

Hayamizu, T. (1997). Between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Examination of reasons for academic study based on the theory of internalization. Japanese Psychological Research, 39, 98-108.

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the Big Five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1380-1393.

Utman, C. H. (1997). Performance effects of motivational state: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1, 170-182.

Koestner, R., Losier, G. F., Vallerand, R. J., & Carducci, D. (1996). Identified and introjected forms of political internalization: Extending self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 1025-1036.

Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767-779.

Miserandino, M. (1996). Children who do well in school: Individual differences in perceived competence and autonomy in above average children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 203-214.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1995). Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 531-543.

Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119-142.

Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & King, K. (1993). Two types of religious internalization and their relations to religious orientation and mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 586-596.

Vallerand, R. J., & Bissonnette, R. (1992). Intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivational styles as predictors of behavior: A prospective study. Journal of Personality, 60, 599-620.

Blais, M. R., Sabourin S., Boucher, C., & Vallerand, R. J. (1990). Toward a motivational model of couple happiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1021-1031.

Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749-761.

Vallerand, R. J., & O'Connor, B. P. (1989). Motivation in the elderly: A theoretical framework and some promising findings. Canadian Psychology, 30, 538-550.

Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Autonomy in children's learning: An experimental and individual difference investigation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 890-898.

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Arvanitis, A. (2017). Autonomy and morality: A Self-Determination Theory discussion of ethics. New Ideas in Psychology, 47, 57-61. doi: 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2017.06.001

Pelletier, L. G., Guertin, C., Pope, J. P., & Rocchi, M. (2016). Homeostasis balance, homeostasis imbalance or distinct motivational processes? Comments on Marks (2015) ‘Homeostatic Theory of Obesity’. Health Psychology Open, 3(1), 1-4. doi: 10.1177/2055102915624512

Pelletier, L. G., & Aitken, N. (2014). Encouraging Environmental Actions in Employees and in the Working Environment: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective. In M. Gagné (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Work Engagement, Motivation, and Self-Determination Theory (pp. 314-334). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Inzlicht, M., & Legault, L. (2014). No pain, no gain: How distress underlies effective self-control (and unites diverse social psychological phenomena). In J. Forgas & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), New York: Psychology Press.

Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Motivation, meaning and wellness: A self-determination perspective on the creation and internalization of personal meanings and life goals. In P. T. P. Wang (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications (pp. 81-106). New York: Routledge Publishers. doi: 10.4324/9780203146286

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2011). Multiple identities within a single self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization within contexts and cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 253-274). New York: The Guilford Press.

Geldhof, G. J., Little, T. D., & Colombo, J. (2010). Self-regulation across the life span. In R. M. Lerner (Editor-in-Chief) & M. E. Lamb & A. M. Freund (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of life-span development. Vol. 2: Social and emotional development (pp. 116-157). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Self-determination theory and the relation of autonomy to self-regulatory processes and personality development. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of personality and self-regulation (pp. 169-191). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Lynch, M. F. (2005). The process and content of socialization: Internalization from a self-determination theory perspective. In E. Kravtsova & V. Spiridonov (Eds.), The cultural-historical approach and research on socialization processes: Proceedings of the 5th International Vygotsky Conference (pp. 70-79). Moscow: Russian State University For The Humanities.

Koestner, R., & Losier, G. F. (2002). Distinguishing three ways of being highly motivated: A closer look at introjection, identification, and intrinsic motivation. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 101-121). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical model. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 37-63). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

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