Goals, Values, and Aspirations

Featured Articles

Ryan, R. M., Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., & Deci, E. L. (1996). All goals are not created equal: An organismic perspective on the nature of goals and their regulation. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 7-26). New York: Guilford Press.

Research Reports

Guertin, C., Barbeau, K., Pelletier, L. G., & Martinelli, G. (2017). Why do women engage in fat talk? Examining fat talk using Self-Determination Theory as an explanatory framework. Body Image, 20, 7-15. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.10.008

Park, L. E., Ward, D. E., & Naragon-Gainey, K. (2017). It’s all about the money (for some): Consequences of financially contingent self- worth. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43(5), 1-12. doi: 10.1177/0146167216689080

Benita, M., Shane, N., Elgali, O., & Roth, G. (2017). The important role of the context in which achievement goals are adopted: an experimental test. Motivation and Emotion, 41, 180-195. doi: 10.1007/s11031-016-9600-8

Thibault Landry, A., Kindlein, J., Trépanier, S.-G., Forest, J., Zigarmi, D., Houson, D., & Brodbeck, F. C (2016). Why individuals want money matters: Using self-determination theory to explain the differential relations between motives for making money and employee psychological health. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 226-242. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9532-8

Lopez, R. B., Milyavskaya, M., Hofmann, W., & Heatherton, T. F. (2016). Motivational and neural correlates of self-control of eating: A combined neuroimaging and experience sampling study in dieting female college students. Appetite, 192-199. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.03.027

Werner, K. M., Milyavskaya, M., Foxen-craft, E., & Koestner, R. (2016). Some goals just feel easier: Self-concordance leads to goal progress through subjective ease, not effort. Personality and Individual Differences, 96, 237-242. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.03.002

Brown, K. W., Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., & Konow, J. (2016). Materialism, spending, and affect: An event-sampling study of marketplace behavior and its affective costs. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(6), 2277-2292. doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9694-9

Davids, E. L., Ryan, J., Yassin, Z., Hendrickse, S., & Roman, N. V. (2016). Family structure and functioning: Influences on adolescents psychological needs, goals and aspirations in a South African setting. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 26(4), 351-356. doi: 10.1080/14330237.2016.1208929

Martela, F., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). The benefits of benevolence: Basic psychological needs, beneficence, and the enhancement of well-being. Journal of Personality, 84(6), 750-764. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12215

Martela, F., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). Prosocial behavior increases well-being and vitality even without contact with the beneficiary: Causal and behavioral evidence. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 351-357. doi: 10.1007/s11031-016-9552-z

Mageau, G. A., Bureau, J. S., Ranger, F., Allen, M.-P.,, & Soenens, B. (2016). Parental achievement goals as determinants of autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1702-1711. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0341-1

Soenens, B., Wuyts, D., Vansteenkiste, M., Mageau, G. A., & Brenning, K. (2015). Raising trophy kids: The role of mothers' contingent self-esteem in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 40-49. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.04.001

Hardy, S. A., Dollahite, D. C., Johnson, N., & Christensen, J. B. (2015). Adolescent motivations to engage in prosocial behaviors and abstain from health-risk behaviors: A self-determination theory approach. Journal of Personality, 83, 479-490. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12123

Milyavskaya, M., Inzlicht, M., Hope, N., & Koestner, R. (2015). Saying ‘No’ to temptation: ‘want-to’ motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 677-693. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000045

Milyavskaya, M., Nadolny, D., & Koestner, R. (2015). Why do people set more self-concordant goals in need satisfying domains? Testing authenticity as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 131-136. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.028

Ntoumanis, N., Healy, L.C., Sedikides, C., Duda, J. L., Stewart, B., Smith, A., & Bond, J. (2014). When the going gets tough: The “why” of goal striving matters. Journal of Personality, 8, 225-236. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12047

Benita, M., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2014). When are mastery goals more adaptive? It depends on experiences of autonomy support and autonomy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 258-267. doi: 10.1037/a0034007

Ntoumanis, N., Healy, L. C., Sedikides, C., Smith, A. L., & Duda, J. L. (2014). Self-regulatory responses to unattainable goals: The role of goal motives. Self and Identity, 13, 594 - 612. doi: 10.1080/15298868.2014.889033

Montasem, A, Brown, S., & Harris, R. (2014). Subjective well-being in dentists: The role of intrinsic aspirations. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 42, 279-288. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12084

Milyavskaya, M., Nadolny, D, & Koestner, R. (2014). Where do self-concordant goals come from? The role of domain-specific psychological need satisfaction.. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 700-711. doi: 10.1177/0146167214524445

Ziviani, J., Poulsen, A. A., Kotaniemi, K., & Law, M. (2014). The Belief in Goal Self-Competence Scale (BiGSS) – Exploring a new way to support individual goal pursuit and document occupational therapy outcomes in paediatric practice. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 61, 316-324. doi: doi: 10.1111/1440-1630.12140

Poulsen, A. A., Ziviani, J., Kotaniemi, K., & Law, M. (2014). “I think I can”: Measuring confidence in goal pursuit. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77, 64-66. doi: 10.4276/030802214X13916969447074

Smith, A.L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2014). An examination of goal motives and athletes’ self-regulatory responses to unattainable goals. International Journal of Sport Psychology: Building Bridges between Motivation and Self-Regulation in Sport, Exercise, and Physical, 4, 538-558.

Healy, L.C., Ntoumanis, N., van Zanten, J.V., & Paine, N. (2014). Goal striving and well-being in sport: The role of contextual and personal motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36, 446-459. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2013-0261

Sheldon, K. M. (2014). Becoming oneself: The central role of self-concordant goal selection. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 18, 349-365. doi: 10.1177/1088868314538549

Hortop, E. G., Wrosch, C., & Gagné, M. (2013). The how and why of goal pursuits: Effects of global perceived control and autonomous motivation on subjective well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 675-687. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9349-2

Przybylski, A. K., , DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1841–1848. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.02.014

Waaler, R., Halvari, H., Skjesol, K., & Bagoien, T. E. (2012). Autonomy support and intrinsic goal progress expectancy and its links to longitudinal study effort and subjective well-being: The differential mediating effects of intrinsic and identified regulations and the moderator effect of effort and intrinsic goals. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 57, 325-341. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2012.656284

Duriez, B., Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., & Berzonsky, M. D. (2012). A process-content approach to adolescent identity formation: Examining longitudinal associations between identity styles and goal pursuits. Journal of Personality, 80, 135-161.

Legault, L., Al-Khindi, & Inzlincht, I. (2012). Preserving integrity in the face of performance threat: Self-affirmation enhances neurophysiological responsiveness to errors.. Psychological Science, 23, 1455-1460. doi: 10.1177/0956797612448483

Martos, T., & Kopp, M. S. (2012). Life goals and well-being: Does financial status matter? Evidence from a representative Hungarian sample. Social Indicators Research, 105, 561-568. doi: 10.1007/s11205-011-9788-7

Koestner, R., Powers, T. A., Carbonneau, N., & Milyavskaya, M. (2012). Distinguishing autonomous and directive forms of goal support: Their effects of goal progress relationship quality and personal well being. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1609-1620. doi: 10.1177/0146167212457075

Verstuyf, J., Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2012). Eating regulation and bulimic symptoms: The differential correlates of health-focused and appearance-focused eating regulation. Body Image, 9, 108-117.

Duriez, B., Meeus, J., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2012). Why are some people more susceptible to ingroup threat than others? The importance of a relative extrinsic to intrinsic value orientation. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 164–172.

Romero, E., Gómez-Fraguela, J. A., & Villar, P. (2012). Life aspirations, personality traits and subjective well-being in a Spanish sample. European Journal of Personality, 26, 45-55.

Roth, G., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Bibi, U. (2011). Prevention of school bullying: The important role of autonomy-supportive teaching and internalization of pro-social values. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 654–666.

Duriez, B. (2011). The social costs of extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits revisited: The moderating role of general causality orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 684–687.

Ciani, K. D., Sheldon, K. M., Hilpert, J. C., & Easter, M. A. (2011). Antecedents and trajectories of achievement goals: A self-determination theory perspective. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 223–243.

McLachlan, S., & Hagger, M. S. (2011). Do people differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic goals in physical activity behavior?. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 33, 273-288.

Kirkegaard Thomsen, D., Tønnesvang, J., Schnieber, A., & Hammershøj Olesen, M. (2011). Do people ruminate because they haven’t digested their goals? The relations of rumination and reflection to goal internalization and ambivalence. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 105-117. doi: 10.1007/s11031-011-9209-x

Kasser, T. (2011). Can thrift bring well-being? A review of the research and a tentative theory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5, 865-877.

Sheldon, K. M., Nichols, C. P., & Kasser, T. (2011). Americans recommend smaller ecological footprints when reminded of intrinsic American values of self-expression, family, and generosity. Ecopsychology, 3, 97-104.

Wang, C. K., Sproule, J., McNeill, M., Martindale, R. J. J., & Lee, K. S. (2011). Impact of the talent development environment on achievement goals and life aspirations in Singapore. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 23, 263-276.

Vansteenkiste, M., Smeets, S., Soenens, B., Lens, W., Matos, L., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals: Their relations to perfectionism and educational outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 333–353. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9188-3

Sheldon, K. M., Gunz, A., Nichols, C. P., & Ferguson, Y. (2010). Extrinsic value orientation and affective forecasting: Overestimating the rewards, underestimating the costs. Journal of Personality, 78, 149-178.

Weinstein, N., DeHaan, Cody R., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Attributed motivation and the recipient experience: Perceptions of other, self, and the helping relationship.. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 418-431.

Twenge, J., Gentile, B., DeWall, C. N., Ma, D., Lacefield, K. , & Schurtz, D. R. (2010). Birth cohort increases in psychopathology among young Americans, 1938–2007: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the MMPI. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 145–154.

Ferguson, Y., & Sheldon, K. M. (2010). Should goal-strivers think about ‘‘why’’ or ‘‘how’’ to strive? It depends on their skill level. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 253-265. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9174-9

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 291-306.

Nien, C., & Duda, J. L. (2009). Antecedents and consequences of approach and avoidance achievement goals: A test of gender invariance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 352-372.

Van Hiel, A., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2009). Ambitions fullfilled? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 68, 27-51.

Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2009). Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Patient Education and Counseling, 74, 250-257.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (2008). Psychological threat and extrinsic goal striving. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 37-45.

Vansteenkiste, M., Timmermans, T., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Van den Broeck, A. (2008). Does extrinsic goal framing enhance extrinsic goal oriented individuals’ learning and performance? An experimental test of the match-perspective vs. self-determination theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 387-397.

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2008). The intergenerational transmission of authoritarianism: The mediating role of parental goal promotion. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 622-642.

Vallerand, R. J., Salvy, S. J., Mageau, G. A., Elliot, A. J., Denis, P. L., Grouzet, F. M., & Blanchard, C. (2007). On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality, 75, 505-534. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00447.x

Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Hagger, M. S. (2007). The moral worth of sport reconsidered: Contributions of recreational sport and competitive sport to life aspirations and psychological well-being. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 1047-1056.

Lacaille, N., Gaudreau, P., & Koestner, R. (2007). On the value of intrinsic rather than traditional achievement goals for performing artists: A short-term prospective study. International Journal of Music Education, 25, 243-254.

Vansteenkiste, M., Matos, L., Lens, W., & Soenens, B. (2007). Understanding the impact of intrinsic versus extrinsic goal framing on exercise performance: The conflicting role of task and ego involvement. Psychology of Sport And Exercise, 8, 771-794.

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). In search of the antecedents of adolescent authoritarianism: The relative contribution of parental goal promotion and parenting style dimensions. European Journal of Personality, 21, 507-527.

Sheldon, K. M., Houser-Marko, L., & Kasser, T. (2006). Does autonomy increase with age? Comparing the goal motivations of college students and their parents. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 168-178.

Koestner, R., Horberg, E. J., Gaudreau, P., Powers, T., DiDio, P., Bryan, C., Jochum, R., & Salter, N. (2006). Bolstering implementation plans for long haul: The benefits of simultaneously boosting self-concordance or self-efficacy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1547-1558.

Vansteenkiste, M., Duriez, B., Simons, J., & Soenens, B. (2006). Materialistic values and well-being among business students: Further evidence for their detrimental effect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 2892-2908.

Brown, K. W., & Kasser, T. (2005). Are psychological and ecological well-being compatible? The role of values, mindfulness, and lifestyle. Social Indicators Research, 74, 349-368.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Matos, L. (2005). Examining the motivational impact of intrinsic versus extrinsic goal framing and autonomy-supportive versus internally controlling communication style on early adolescents' academic achievement. Child Development, 2, 483-501.

Sheldon, K. M. (2005). Positive value change during college: Normative trends and individual differences. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 209-223.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 246-260.

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: It's both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 475-486.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Soenens, B., Matos, L., & Lacante, M. (2004). Less is sometimes more: Goal-content matters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 755-764.

Cozzolino, P. J., Staples, A. D., Meyers, L. S., & Samboceti, J. (2004). Greed, death, and values: From terror management to transcendence management theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 278-292.

Sheldon, K. M., Arndt, J., & Houser-Marko, L. I (2003). In search of the organismic valuing process: The human tendency to move towards beneficial goal choices. Journal of Personality, 71, 835-869.

Kim, Y., Kasser, T., & Lee, H. (2003). Self-concept, aspirations, and well-being in South Korea and the United States. Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 277-290.

Kasser, T., & Ahuvia, A. C. (2002). Materialistic values and well-being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 137-146.

Kasser, T., Koestner, R., & Lekes, N. (2002). Early family experiences and adult values: A 26-year, prospective longitudinal study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 826-835.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (2001). Goals, congruence, and positive well-being: New empirical validation for humanistic ideas. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 41, 30-50.

Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Hedberg, V.,, & Deci, E. L. (2000). Extrinsic life goals and health risk behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1756-1771.

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2000). Personal goals in social roles: Divergences and convergences across roles and levels of analysis. Journal of Personality, 68, 51-84.

Sheldon, K. M., & McGregor, H. A. (2000). Extrinsic value orientation and 'the tragedy of the commons'. Journal of Personality, 68, 383-411.

Schmuck, P., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The relationship of well-being to intrinsic and extrinsic goals in Germany and the U.S. Social Indicators Research, 50, 225-241.

Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V. I., Little, T. D., Sheldon, K. M., Timoshina, E., & Deci, E. L. (1999). The American dream in Russia: Extrinsic aspirations and well-being in two cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1509-1524.

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need-satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: The self-concordance model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 482-497.

McHoskey, J. W. (1999). Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 267-283.

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing autonomous and controlling goals on effort and attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 546-557.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1998). Pursuing personal goals: Skills enable progress but not all progress is beneficial. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1319-1331.

Kasser, T. (1996). Aspirations and well-being in a prison setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1367-1377.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1995). Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 531-543.

Kasser, T., Ryan, R. M., Zax, M., & Sameroff, A. J. (1995). The relations of maternal and social environments to late adolescents' materialistic and prosocial values. Developmental Psychology, 31, 907-914.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422.

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Guiffrida, D., Lynch, M. F., Wall, A., & Abel, D. (2013). Do reasons for attending college affect academic outcomes? A test of a motivational model from a self-determination theory perspective. Journal of College Student Development, 54, 121-139. doi: 10.1353/csd.2013.0019

Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Motivation, meaning and wellness: A self-determination perspective on the creation and internalization of personal meanings and life goals. In P. T. P. Wang (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications (pp. 81-106). New York: Routledge Publishers. doi: 10.4324/9780203146286

Koestner, R. (2008). Reaching one’s personal goals: A motivational perspective focused on autonomy. Canadian Psychology, 49, 60-67.

Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2007). Self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior: An integrative approach toward a more complete model of motivation. In L. V. Brown (Ed.), Psychology of motivation (pp. 83-98). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Sheldon, K. M., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Time travel via goals: Implications and issues. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time: Theory, research, and applications in social, personality, health, and environmental psychology (pp. 143-165). London: Erlbaum.

Kasser, T. (2002). Sketches for a self-determination theory of values. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 123-140). Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Approaching and avoiding self-determination: comparing cybernetic and organismic paradigms of motivation. In C. Carver & M. Scheier (Eds.), Perspectives on behavioral self-regulation: Advances in social cognition (Vol XII, pp. 193-215). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.