Development and Parenting

Research Reports

Cheon, S. H., Reeve, J., Lee, Y., & Lee, J. (2018). Why autonomy-supportive interventions work: Explaining the professional development of teachers’ motivating style. Teaching and Teacher Education, 69, 43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2017.09.022

Schneider, S., Nebel, S., Beege, M., & Rey, G. D. (2018). The autonomy-enhancing effects of choice on cognitive load, motivation and learning with digital media. Learning and Instruction, 58, 161-172. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.06.006

Lonsdale, C., Hurley, D. A., Hall, A. M., Murray, A., Williams, G. C., McDonough, S. M., Ntoumanis, N., Owen, K., Schwarzer, R., & Parker, P., Kolt, G. S. (2017). Communication skills training for practitioners to increase patient adherence to home-based rehabilitation for chronic low back pain: Results of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 98, 1732-1743. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2017.02.025

Duineveld, J. J., Parker, P.D., Ryan, R. M., Ciarrochi, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2017). The link between perceived maternal and paternal autonomy support and adolescent well-being across three major educational transitions. Developmental Psychology, 53(10), 1978-1994. doi: 10.1037/dev0000364

González-Cutre, D., Sicilia, A., Sierra, A. C., Ferriz, R., & Hagger, M. S. (2016). Understanding the need for novelty from the perspective of self-determination theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 159-169. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.06.036

, Pekrun, R., Suzuki, M., Marsh, H. W., & Lichtenfeld, S. (2016). Don’t aim too high for your kids: Parental overaspiration undermines students’ learning in mathematics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(5), 766-779. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000079

Mageau, G. A., Bureau, J. S., Ranger, F., Allen, M.-P.,, & Soenens, B. (2016). Parental achievement goals as determinants of autonomy-supportive and controlling parenting. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 1702-1711. doi: 10.1007/s10826-015-0341-1

Soenens, B., Wuyts, D., Vansteenkiste, M., Mageau, G. A., & Brenning, K. (2015). Raising trophy kids: The role of mothers' contingent self-esteem in maternal promotion of extrinsic goals. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 40-49. doi:

Hein, V., Koka, A., & Hagger, M. S. (2015). Relationships between perceived teachers' controlling behaviour, psychological need thwarting, anger and bullying behaviour in high-school students. Journal of Adolescence, 42, 103-114. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.04.003

Jungert, T., Landry, R., Joussemet, M., Mageau, G. A., Gingras, I., & Koestner, R. (2015). Autonomous and controlled motivation for parenting: Associations with parent and child outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1932-1942. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9993-5

Katz, I., Madjar, N., & Harari, A. (2014). Parental support and adolescent motivation for dieting: The self-determination theory perspective. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied doi: 10.1080/00223980.2014.903890

Gorin, A. A., Powers, T. A., Koestner, R., Wing, R. R., & Raynor, H. (2014). Autonomy support, self-regulation, and weight loss. Health Psychology, 33(4), 332-339. doi: 10.1037/a0032586

Grolnick, W. S., Raftery-Helmer, J. N., Marbell, K. N., Flamm, E. S., Cardemil, E. V., & Sanchez, M. (2014). Parental provision of structure: Implementation and correlates in three domains. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 60, 355-384. doi: 10.1353/mpq.2014.0016

Flamm, E. S., & Grolnick, W. S. (2013). Adolescent Adjustment in the Context of Life Change: The Supportive Role of Parental Structure Provision. Journal of Adolescence, 36, 899-912. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.07.006

Marbell, K. N., & Grolnick, W. S. (2013). Correlates of parental control and autonomy support in an interdependent culture: A look at Ghana. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 79-92. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9289-2

Savard, A., Joussemet, M., Pelletier, L. G., & Mageau, G. A. (2013). The benefits of autonomy support for adolescents with severe emotional and behavioral problems. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 688-700. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9351-8

Lubans, D. R., Lonsdale, C., Plotnikoff, R. C., Smith, J. J., Dally, K., & Morgan, P. J. (2013). Development and evaluation of the motivation to limit screen-time questionnaire (MLSQ) for Adolescents. Preventive Medicine, 57(5), 561-566. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.07.023

de Haan, A. D., Soenens, B., Dekovic, M., & Prinzie, P. (2013). Effects of childhood aggression on parenting during adolescence: The role of parental psychological need satisfaction. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, 393-404. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.769171

Rhodes, J. D., Colder, C. R., Trucco, E. M., Speidel, C., Hawk, L. W., Lengua, L. J., Eiden, R. D., & Wieczorek, W. (2013). The interaction between self-regulation and motivation prospectively predicting problem behavior in adolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42, 681-692. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2013.773515

Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2012). The cross-cultural significance of control and autonomy in parent–adolescent relationships. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 243-248.

Weinstein, N., Ryan, W. S., DeHaan, C. R., Przybylski, A. K., Legate, N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: Dynamics of self-acceptance and defense. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 815–832. doi: 10.1037/a0026854

Van Petegem, S., Beyers, W., Vansteenkiste, M., & Soenens, B. (2012). On the association between adolescent autonomy and psychosocial functioning: Examining decisional (in)dependence from a self-determination theory perspective. Developmental Psychology, 48, 76-88.

Lekes, N., Joussemet, M., Koestner, R., Taylor, G., Hope, N. H., & Gingras, I. (2011). Transmitting intrinsic values from mothers to adolescents: The moderating role of a supportive family environment. Child Development Research doi: doi:10.1155/2011/167146

Huta, V. (2011). Linking peoples’ pursuit of eudaimonia and hedonia with characteristics of their parents: Parenting styles, verbally endorsed values, and role modeling. Journal of Happiness Studies

Ferguson, Y. L., Kasser, T., & Jahng, S. (2011). Differences in life satisfaction and school satisfaction among adolescents from three nations: The role of perceived autonomy support. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 649-661.

Whipple, N., Bernier, A., & Mageau, G. A. (2011). A dimensional approach to maternal attachment state of mind: Relations to maternal sensitivity and maternal autonomy-support. Developmental Psychology, 47, 396-403.

Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Dunkel, C., Papini, D., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). Are all identity commitments created equally? The importance of motives for late adolescents’ personal adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 358-369.

Thomas, D. A., & Woodside, M. (2011). Resilience in adult children of divorce: A multiple case study. Marriage & Family Review, 47, 213-234.

Kanat-Maymon M., & Assor, A. (2010). Perceived maternal control and responsiveness to distress as predictors of young adults’ empathic responses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 33–46.

Russell, K. L., & Bray, S. R. (2010). Promoting self-determined motivation for exercise in cardiac rehabilitation: The role of autonomy support. Rehabilitation Psychology, 55, 74–80.

Smits, I., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Luyckx, K., & Goossens, L. (2010). Why do adolescents gather information or stick to parental norms? Examining autonomous and controlled motives behind adolescents’ identity style. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39, 1343–1356.

Farkas, M. S., & Grolnick, W. S. (2010). Examining the components and concomitants of parental structure in the academic domain. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 266–279.

Renaud-Dube, A., Taylor, G., Lekes, N., Koestner, R., & Guay, F. (2010). Adolescents' motivation toward the environment: Age-related trends and correlates. Canadian Journal of Bahavioural Science, 42, 194-199. doi: doi:10.1037/a0018596

Garn, A. C., Matthews, M. S., & Jolly, J. L. (2010). Parental influences on the academic motivation of gifted students: A self-determination theory perspective. Gifted Child Quarterly, 54, 263–272.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Luyten, P. (2010). Toward a domain-specific approach to the study of parental psychological control: Distinguishing between dependency-oriented and achievement-oriented psychological control. Journal of Personality, 78, 217-256.

Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). A theoretical upgrade of the concept of parental psychological control: Proposing new insights on the basis of self-determination theory. Developmental Review, 30, 74-99. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-21

Bernier, A., Carlson, S. M., & Whipple, N. (2010). From external regulation to self-regulation: Early parenting precursors of young children's executive functioning. Child Development, 81, 326-339. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01397

Roth, G., Ron, T., & Benita, M. (2009). Mothers’ parenting practices and adolescents’ learning from their mistakes in class: The mediating role of adolescent’s self-disclosure. Learning and Instruction, 19, 506-512.

Milyavskaya, M., Gingras, I., Mageau, G., Koestner, R., Gagnon, H., Fang, J., & Boiche, J. (2009). Balance across contexts: The importance of balanced need satisfaction across various life domains in adolescence. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1031. doi: 10.1177/0146167209337036

Chawla, N., Neighbors, C., Logan, D., Lewis, M. A., & Fossos, N (2009). The perceived approval of friends and parents as mediators of the relationship between self-determination and drinking. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 70, 92-100.

Turner, E. A., Chandler, M., & Heffer, R. W. (2009). The influence of parenting styles, achievement motivation, and self-efficacy on academic performance in college students. Journal of College Student Development, 50, 337-346.

Mageau, G. A., Vallerand, R. J., Charest, J., Salvy, S., Lacaille, N., Bouffard, T., & Koestner, R. (2009). On the development of harmonious and obsessive passion: The role of autonomy support, activity specialization, and identification with the activity. Journal of Personality, 77, 601-646.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2009). Should parental prohibition of adolescents’ peer relationships be prohibited?. Personal Relationships, 16, 507-530.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Sierens, E. (2009). How are parental psychological control and autonomy-support related? A cluster-analytic approach. Journal of Marriage and Family, 187-202.

Kins, E., Beyers, W., Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2009). Patterns of home leaving and subjective well-being in emerging adulthood: The role of motivational processes and parental autonomy support. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1416-1429.

Hardy, S. A., Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Carlo, G. (2008). Parenting dimensions and adolescents' internalization of moral values. Journal of Moral Education, 37, 205-223. doi: 10.1080/03057240802009512

Goldstein, J. D., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (2008). Determinants of parents’ sideline-rage emotions and behaviors at youth soccer games. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1442–1462.

Landry, R., Whipple, N., Mageau, G. A., Joussemet, M., Gingras, I., Didio, L., & Koestner, R. (2008). Trust in organismic development, autonomy support, and adaptation among mothers and their children: A self-determination theory approach to parenting. Motivation & Emotion, 32, 173-188.

Bao, X., & Lam, S. (2008). Who makes the choice? Rethinking the role of autonomy and relatedness in Chinese children's motivation. Child Development, 79, 269-283.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., Duriez, B., & Niemiec, C. P. (2008). The intervening role of relational aggression between psychological control and friendship quality. Social Development, 17, 661-681.

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2008). The intergenerational transmission of authoritarianism: The mediating role of parental goal promotion. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 622-642.

Wong, M. M. (2008). Perceptions of parental involvement and autonomy support: Their relations with self-regulation, academic performance, substance use and resilience among adolescents. North American Journal of Psychology, 10, 497-518.

Knafo, A., & Assor, A. (2007). Motivation for agreement with parental values: Desirable when autonomous, problematic when controlled. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 232-245.

Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., & Berzonsky, M. (2007). Parental psychological control and dimensions of identity formation in emerging adulthood. Journal of Family Psychology, 21, 546-550.

Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., Smits, I., Lowet, K., & Goossens, L. (2007). The role of intrusive parenting in the relationship between peer management strategies and peer affiliation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28, 239-249.

Soenens, B., Duriez, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Goossens, L. (2007). The intergenerational transmission of empathy-related responding in adolescence: The role of maternal support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1-13.

Cleveland, E. S., Reese, E., & Grolnick, W. S. (2007). Children’s engagement and competence in personal recollection: Effects of parents’ reminiscing goals. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 96, 131-149.

Bouchard, G., Lee, C. M., Asgary, V.,, & Pelletier, L. G. (2007). Fathers’ motivation for involvement with their children: A self-determination theory perspective. Fathering, 5, 25-41.

Grolnick, W. S., Price, C. E., Beiswenger, K. L., & Sauck, C. C. (2007). Evaluative pressure in mothers: Effects of situation, maternal, and child characteristics on autonomy supportive versus controlling behavior. Developmental Psychology, 43, 991-1002.

Marchand, G., & Skinner, E. A. (2007). Motivational dynamics of children’s academic help-seeking and concealment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 65-82.

Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Smits, I., Goossens, L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). Information-oriented identity processing, identity consolidation, and well-being: The moderating role of autonomy, self-reflection, and self-rumination. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1099-1111.

Duriez, B., Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). In search of the antecedents of adolescent authoritarianism: The relative contribution of parental goal promotion and parenting style dimensions. European Journal of Personality, 21, 507-527.

Gurland, S. T., & Grolnick, W. S. (2005). Perceived threat, controlling parenting, and children's achievement orientations. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 103-121.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Matos, L. (2005). Examining the motivational impact of intrinsic versus extrinsic goal framing and autonomy-supportive versus internally controlling communication style on early adolescents' academic achievement. Child Development, 2, 483-501.

Skinner, E. A., Johnson, S., & Snyder, T. (2005). Six dimensions of parenting: A motivational model. Parenting: Science and Practice, 5, 175-235.

Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., Houser-Marko, L., Jones, T., & Turban, D. (2005). Doing one's duty: Chronological age, felt autonomy, and subjective well-being. European Journal of Personality, 19, 97-115.

Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2005). Antecedents and outcomes of self-determination in three life domains: The role of parents’ and teachers’ autonomy support. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34, 589-604.

Gurland, S. T., & Grolnick, W. S. (2003). Children's expectancies and perceptions of adults: Effects on rapport. Child Development, 74, 1212-1224.

Shahar, G., Henrich, C. C., Blatt, S. J., Ryan, R. M., & Little, T. D. (2003). Interpersonal relatedness, self-definition, and motivational orientation during adolescence: A theoretical and empirical investigation. Developmental Psychology, 39, 470-483.

Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. A. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148-162.

Grolnick, W. S., Gurland, S. T., DeCourcey, W., & Jacob, K. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of mothers' autonomy support: An experimental investigation. Developmental Psychology, 38, 143-155.

Shields, A., Ryan, R. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children's rejection by peers. Developmental Psychology, 37, 321-337.

Chirkov, V. I., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Parent and teacher autonomy-support in Russian and U.S. adolescents: Common effects on well-being and academic motivation. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 618-635.

Grolnick, W. S., Kurowski, C. O., Dunlap, K. G., & Hevey, C. (2000). Parental resources and the transition to junior high. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10, 465-488.

Grolnick, W. S., Kurowski, C. O., & Gurland, S. T. (1999). Family processes and the development of children's self-regulation. Educational Psychologist, 34, 3-14.

Grolnick, W. S., Kurowski, C. O., McMenamy, J. M., Rivkin, I., & Bridges, L. J. (1998). Mothers' strategies for regulating their toddlers' distress. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 437-450.

Grolnick, W. S., Benjet, C., Kurowski, C. O., & Apostoleris, N. H. (1997). Predictors of parent involvement in children's schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 538-548.

Dresner, R., & Grolnick, W. S. (1996). Constructions of early parenting, intimacy and autonomy in young women. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 13, 25-39.

Ryan, R. M., & Kuczkowski, R. (1994). The imaginary audience, self-consciousness, and public individuation in adolescence. Journal of Personality, 62, 219-238.

Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 226-249.

Shields, A., Cicchetti, D., & Ryan, R. M. (1994). The development of emotional and behavioral self-regulation and social competence among maltreated school-age children. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 57-75.

Deci, E. L., Driver, R. E., Hotchkiss, L., Robbins, R. J., & Wilson, I. M. (1993). The relation of mothers' controlling vocalizations to children's intrinsic motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 155, 151-162.

Ryan, R. M., & Lynch, J. (1989). Emotional autonomy versus detachment: Revisiting the vicissitudes of adolescence and young adulthood. Child Development, 60, 340-356.

Avery, R. R., & Ryan, R. M. (1988). Object relations and ego development: Comparison and correlates in middle childhood. Journal of Personality, 56, 547-569.

Chandler, C. L., & Connell, J. P. (1987). Children's intrinsic, extrinsic and internalized motivation: A developmental study of children's reasons for liked and disliked behaviours. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 357-365.

Ryan, R. M., & Avery, R. R. (1985). A Rorschach assessment of children's mutuality of autonomy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 6-12.

Grolnick, W. S., Frodi, A., & Bridges, L. (1984). Maternal control styles and the mastery motivation of one-year-olds. Infant Mental Health Journal, 5, 72-82.

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2013). Toward a social psychology of assimilation: Self-determination theory in cognitive development and education. In B. W. Sokol, F. M. E. Grouzet, U. Muller (Eds.), Self-regulation and autonomy: Social and developmental dimensions of human conduct (pp. 191-207). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/cbo9781139152198.014

Soenens, B., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2011). When is identity congruent with the self? A self-determination theory perspective. In S. J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx, & V. L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 381-402). New York, NY: Springer.

Geldhof, G. J., Little, T. D., & Colombo, J. (2010). Self-regulation across the life span. In R. M. Lerner (Editor-in-Chief) & M. E. Lamb & A. M. Freund (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of life-span development. Vol. 2: Social and emotional development (pp. 116-157). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Friendly, R., & Grolnick, W. S. (2009). Child adjustment to familial dissolution: An examination of parental factors using a self-determination theory framework. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 50, 66–80.

Pomerantz, E. M., & Grolnick, W. S. (2009). Toward a clear and inclusive conceptualization of parental control: Reply to the commentaries. Child Development Perspectives, 3, 176–177.

Whipple, N., Bernier, A., & Mageau, G. A. (2009). Attending to the exploration side of infant attachment: Contributions from self-determination theory. Canadian Psychology, 50, 219-229.

Grolnick, W. S., Beiswenger, J., & Price, C. E. (2008). Stepping up without overstepping: Disentangling parenting dimensions and their implications for adolescent adjustment. In M. Kerr and H. Stattin (Eds.), Advances in research on parenting (pp. 211-237). New York, NY: Wiley.

Grolnick, W. S., & Seal, K. (2008). Pressured parents, stressed-out kids: Dealing with competition while raising a successful child. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Press.

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Grolnick, W. S., & La Guardia, J. G. (2006). The significance of autonomy and autonomy support in psychological development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and method (Vol 1, pp. 795-849). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Pomerantz, E. M., Grolnick, W. S., & Price, C. E. (2005). The role of parents in how children approach achievement: A dynamic process perspective. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 229-278). New York: Guilford Publications.

Ryan, R. M. (2005). The developmental line of autonomy in the etiology, dynamics, and treatment of borderline personality disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 17, 987-1006.

Grolnick, W. S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Grolnick, W. S., Gurland, S. T., Jacob, K. F., & Decourcey, W. (2002). The development of self-determination in middle childhood and adolescence. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 147-171). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Skinner, E. A., & Edge, K. (2002). Parenting, motivation, and the development of children's coping. In L. J. Crockett (Ed.), Agency, motivation, and the life course: The Nebaska symposium on motivation, Vol. 48 (pp. 77-143). Lincoln, NE: University Of Nebraska Press.

La Guardia, J. G., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). What adolescents need: A self-determination theory perspective on development within families, school and society. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Academic motivation of adolescentsGreenwich CT: IAP.

Ryan, R. M., & La Guardia, J. G. (2000). What is being optimized over development?: A self-determination theory perspective on basic psychological needs across the life span. In S. Qualls & N. Abeles (Eds.), Psychology and the aging revolution (pp. 145-172). Washington, DC: APA Books.

Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). Autonomy, relatedness, and the self: Their relation to development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and methods (Vol 1, pp. 618-655). New York: Wiley.

Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1994). Coping during childhood and adolescence: A motivational perspective. In D. L. Featherman, R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (pp. 91-133). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ryan, R. M. (1993). Agency and organization: Intrinsic motivation, autonomy and the self in psychological development. In J. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Developmental perspectives on motivation (Vol 40, pp. 1-56). Lincoln, NE: University Of Nebraska Press.

Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1992). Parental resources and the developing child in school. In M. Procidano & C. Fisher (Eds.), Contemporary families: A handbook for school professionals (pp. 275-291). New York: Teachers College Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1986). The dynamics of self-determination in personality and development. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognitions in anxiety and motivation (pp. 171-194). Hillside, NY: Erlbaum.