Causality Orientations

Featured Articles

Olesen, M., H. (2011). General causality orientations are distinct from but related to dispositional traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 460-465.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109-134.

Research Reports

Gillet, N., Fouquereau, E., Lafrenière, M.-A. K., & Huyghebaert, T. (2016). Examining the roles of work autonomous and controlled motivations on satisfaction and anxiety as a function of role ambiguity. The Journal of Psychology, 150, 644-655. doi: 10.1080/00223980.2016.1154811

Lavergne, K., & Pelletier, L. G. (2016). Why are attitude-behavior inconsistencies uncomfortable? Using motivational theories to explore individual differences in dissonance arousal and motivation to compensate. Motivation and Emotion, 40(6), 842-861. doi: 10.1007/s11031-016-9577-3

Hagger, M. S., Sultan, S., Hardcastle, S. J.,, & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2015). Perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation toward mathematics activities in educational and out-of-school contexts is related to mathematics homework behavior and attainment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41, 111-123. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.12.002

Hagger, M. S., Koch, S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2015). The effect of causality orientations and positive competence-enhancing feedback on intrinsic motivation: A test of additive and interactive effects. Personality and Individual Differences, 72, 107-111. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.012

Amoura, C., Berjot, S., Gillet, N., Caruana, S., Cohen, J., & Finez, L. (2015). Autonomy-supportive and controlling styles of teaching: Opposite or distinct teaching styles?. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 74, 141-158. doi: 10.1024/1421-0185/a000156

Gillet, N., Lafrenière, M.-A., Huyghebaert, T., & Fouquereau, E. (2015). Autonomous and controlled reasons underlying achievement goals: Implications for the 3 x 2 achievement goal model in educational and work settings. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 858-875. doi: 10.1007/s11031-015-9505-y

Milyavskaya, M., Inzlicht, M., Hope, N., & Koestner, R. (2015). Saying ‘No’ to temptation: ‘want-to’ motivation improves self-regulation by reducing temptation rather than by increasing self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 677-693. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000045

Amoura, C., Berjot, S., Gillet, N., & Altintas, E. (2014). Desire for control, perception of control: Their impact on autonomous motivation and psychological adjustment. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 323-335. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9379-9

Gillet, N., Lafreniere, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Huart, I., & Fouquereau, E. (2014). The effects of autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals on well-being: A process model. British Journal of Social Psychology, 53, 154-174. doi: 10.1111/bjso.12018

Slovinec D’Angelo, M., Pelletier, L. G., Huta, V., & Reid, R. D. (2014). The roles of self-efficacy and motivation in the prediction of short- and long-term adherence to exercise among coronary heart disease patients. Health Psychology, 33, 1344-1353. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000094

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., Lafreniere, M. A., & Bureau, J. S. (2013). The mediating role of positive and negative affect in the situational motivation-performance relationship: A test of the self-determination and broaden-and-build theories. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 465-479. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9314-5

Kusurkar, R. A., Ten Cate, T.J., Vos, C.M., Westers, P., & Croiset, G. (2013). How motivation affects academic performance: A structural equation modelling analysis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18, 57-69. doi: 10.1007/s10459-012-9354-3

Gillet, N., Gagné, M., Sauvagere, S., & Fouquereau, E. (2013). The role of supervisor autonomy support, organizational support, and autonomous and controlled motivation in predicting employees’ satisfaction and turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22, 450-460. doi: 10.1080/1359432X.2012.665228

Amoura, C., Berjot, S., & Gillet, N. (2013). Desire for control: Its effect on need satisfaction and self-determined motivation. International Review of Social Psychology, 26, 55-71.

Radel, R., Sarrazin, P., Jehu, M., & Pelletier, L. G. (2013). Priming motivation through unattended speech. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52(4), 763-772. doi: 10.1111/bjso.12030

Radel, R., Pelletier, L. G., & Sarrazin, P. (2013). Restoration processes after need thwarting: when autonomy depends on competence. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 234-244. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9308-3

Milyavskaya, M., McClure, M. J., Ma, D., Koestner, R., & Lydon, J. (2012). Attachment security moderates the effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling interpersonal primes on intrinsic motivation. Canadian Journal of Behaviour Science, 44, 278-287. doi: 10.1037/a0025828

Kwan, B. M., Caldwell Hooper, A. E., Mangan, R. E., & Bryan, A. D. (2011). A longitudinal diary study of the effects of causality orientations on exercise-related affect. Self and Identity, 10, 363-374.

Duriez, B. (2011). The social costs of extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal pursuits revisited: The moderating role of general causality orientation. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 684–687.

Hammershøj Olesen, M. (2011). General causality orientations are distinct from but related to dispositional traits. Personality and Individual Difference, 51, 460-465. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.015

Olesen, M., H. (2011). General causality orientations are distinct from but related to dispositional traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 460-465.

Weinstein, N., Hodgins, H. S., & Ostvik-White, E. (2011). Humor as aggression: Effects of motivation on hostility expressed in humor appreciation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 1043-1055.

Friedman, R., Deci, E. L., Elliot, A. J., Moller, A. C., & Aarts, H. (2010). Priming motivational orientations with observations of others' behaviors. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 34-38. doi: 10.1007/s11031-009-9151-3

Hodgins, H. S., Weisbust, K. S., Weinstein, N., Shiffman, S., Miller, A., Coombs, G., & Adair, K. C. (2010). The cost of self-protection: Threat response and performance as a function of autonomous and controlled motivations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1101-1114.

Moller, A. C., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Interpersonal control, dehumanization, and violence: A self-determination theory perspective. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13, 41-53.

Olesen, M. H., Thomsen, D. K., Schnieber, A., & Tønnesvang, J. (2010). Distinguishing general causality orientations from personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 538–543.

Hammershøj Olesen, M., Kirkegaard Thomsen, Dorthe, Schnieber, Anette, & Tønnesvang, Jan (2010). Distinguishing general causality orientations from personality traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 538-543. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.032

Weinstein, N., & Hodgins, H. S. (2009). The moderating role of autonomy and control on the benefits of written emotion expression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 351-364.

Lam, C. F., & Gurland, S. T. (2008). Self-determined work motivation predicts job outcomes, but what predicts self-determined work motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1109-1115.

Goldstein, J. D., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (2008). Determinants of parents’ sideline-rage emotions and behaviors at youth soccer games. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1442–1462.

Ratelle, C. F., Guay, F., Vallerand, R. J., Larose, S., & Senecal, C. (2007). Autonomous, controlled, and amotivated types of academic motivation: A person-oriented analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 734-746.

Neighbors, C., Lewis, M. A., Bergstrom, R. L., & Larimer, M. E. (2006). Being controlled by normative influences: Self-determination as a moderator of a normative feedback alcohol intervention. Health Psychology, 25, 571-579.

Lewis, M. A., Neighbors, C., & Malheim, J. E. (2006). Indulgence or restraint?  Gender differences in the relationship between controlled orientation and the erotophilia-risky sex link. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 985-995.

Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2005). Identity styles and causality orientations: In search of the motivational underpinnings of the identity exploration process. European Journal of Personality, 19, 427-442.

Lewis, M. A., & Neighbors, C. (2005). Self-determination and the use of self-presentation strategies. Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 469-489.

Neighbors, C., Larimer, M. E., Geisner, I. M., & Knee, C. R. (2004). Feeling controlled and drinking motives among college students: Contingent self-esteem as a mediator. Self and Identity, 3, 207-224.

Neighbors, C., & Larimer, M. E. (2004). Self-determination and problem gambling among college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23, 565-583.

Gagné, M. (2003). The role of autonomy support and autonomy orientation in prosocial behavior engagement. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 199-223.

Neighbors, C., & Knee, C. R. (2003). Self-determination and the consequences of social comparison. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 529-546.

Neighbors, C., Walker, D. D., & Larimer, M. E. (2003). Expectancies and evaluations of alcohol effects among college students: Self-determination as a moderator. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 64, 292-300.

Hodgins, H. S., & Liebeskind, E. (2003). Apology versus defense: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 297-236.

Neighbors, C., Vietor, N. A., & Knee, C. R. (2002). A motivational model of driving anger and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 324-335.

Knee, C. R., Patrick, H., Vietor, N. A., Nanayakkara, A., & Neighbors, C. (2002). Self-determination as growth motivation in romantic relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 609-619.

Hmel, B. A., & Pincus, A. L. (2002). The meaning of autonomy: On and beyond the interpersonal complex. Journal of Personality, 70, 277-310.

Knee, C. R., Neighbors, C., & Vietor, N. (2001). Self-determination theory as a framework for understanding road rage. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 889-904.

Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740-756.

Wong, M. M. (2000). The relations among causality orientations, academic experience, academic performance, and academic commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 315-326.

Koestner, R., Gingras, I., Abutaa, R., Losier, G. F., DiDio, L., & Gagné, M. (1999). To follow expert advice when making a decision: An examination of reactive vs reflective autonomy. Journal of Personality, 67, 851-872.

McHoskey, J. W. (1999). Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 267-283.

Knee, C. R., & Zuckerman, M. (1998). A nondefensive personality: Autonomy and control as moderators of defensive coping and self-handicapping. Journal of Research in Personality, 32, 115-130.

Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z. R., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115-126.

Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767-779.

Hodgins, H. S., Koestner, R., & Duncan, N. (1996). On the compatibility of autonomy and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 227-237.

Koestner, R., & Losier, G. F. (1996). Distinguishing reactive versus reflective autonomy. Journal of Personality, 64, 465-494.

Hodgins, H. S., Liebeskind, E., & Schwartz, W. (1996). Getting out of hot water: Facework in social predicaments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 300-314.

Knee, C. R., & Zuckerman, M. (1996). Causality orientations and the disappearance of the self-serving bias. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 76-87.

Bober, S., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). Motivational factors related to differences in self-schemas. Motivation and Emotion, 19, 307-327.

Koestner, R., & Zuckerman, M. (1994). Causality orientations, failure, and achievement. Journal of Personality, 62, 321-346.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422.

Koestner, R., Bernieri, F., & Zuckerman, M. (1992). Self-regulation and consistency between attitudes, traits, and behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 52-59.

Zuckerman, M., Gioioso, C., & Tellini, S. (1988). Control orientation, self-monitoring, and preference for image versus quality approach to advertising. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 89-100.

Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Lacouture, Y., & Deci, E. L. (1987). L'echelle des Orientations Generales a la Causalite: Validation Canadienne Francaise du General Causality Orientations scale. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 19, 1-15.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109-134.

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: A hierarchical model. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 37-63). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol Vol. 29, pp. 271-360). San Diego: Academic Press.

Koestner, R., & Zuckerman, M. (1994). Causality orientations, failure and achievement. Journal of Personality, 62, 321-346.