Basic Psychological Needs

Featured Articles

Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63, 397-427.

Research Reports

Rocchi, M., Pelletier, L. G., Cheung, S., Baxter, D., & Beaudry, S. (2017). Assessing need-supportive and need-thwarting interpersonal behaviours: The Interpersonal Behaviours Questionnaire (IBQ). Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 423-433. doi:

Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardley, I. D., Sedikides, C., Stewart, B. D., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2017). Narcissism and coach interpersonal style: A self-determination theory perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(2), 254-261. doi: doi:10.1111/sms.12635

Sylvester, B., Lubans, D. R., Eather, N., Standage, M., Wolf, S., McEwan, D., . . ., & Beauchamp, M. (2016). Effects of variety support on exercise-related well-being. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being, 8(2), 213-31. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12069

Appleton, P. R., Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Viladrich, C., & Duda, J. (2016). Initial validation of the coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 53-65. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.013

Trenshaw, K. F., Revelo, R. A., Earl, K. A., & Herman, G. L. (2016). Using self determination theory principles to promote engineering students’ intrinsic motivation to learn. International Journal of Engineering Education, 32, 1194-1207.

Cordeiro, P., Paixão, P., Lens, W., Lacante, M., & Luyckx, K. (2016). The Portuguese validation of the basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration scale: Concurrent and longitudinal relations to well-being and ill-being. Psychologica Belgica, 56(3), 193-209. doi:

DeHaan, C., Hirai, T., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). Nussbaum’s capabilities and self-determination theory’s basic psychological needs: Relating some fundamentals of human wellness. Journal of Happiness, 5, 2037-2049. doi: 10.1007/s10902-015-9684-y

Martela, F., & Ryan, R. M. (2016). The benefits of benevolence: Basic psychological needs, beneficence, and the enhancement of well-being. Journal of Personality, 84(6), 750-764. doi: 10.1111/jopy.12215

Lynch, M. F., & Salikhova, N. R. (2016). Teachers’ conceptions about the child’s developmental needs: A structural analysis. Mathematics Education, 11, 1471-1479.

Cordeiro, P., Paixão, P., Lens, W., Lacante, M., & Sheldon, K. M. (2016). Factor structure and dimensionality of the balanced measure of psychological needs among Portuguese high school students: Relations to well-being and ill-being. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 51-60. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.12.010

Nishimura, T., & Suzuki, T. (2016). Basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration in Japan: Controlling for the big five personality traits. Japanese Psychological Research, 58(4), 320-331. doi: doi: 10.1111/jpr.12131

Chen, B., Van Assche, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., & Beyers, W. (2015). Does psychological need satisfaction matter when environmental or financial safety are at risk?. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 745-766. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9532-5

Cordeiro, P. M., Paixão, M. P., Lens, W., Lacante, M., & Luyckx, K. (2015). Cognitive-motivational antecedents of career decision-making processes in Portugese high school students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 90, 145-153. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2015.08.005

Legate, N., DeHaan, C., & Ryan, R. M. (2015). Righting the wrong: Reparative coping after going along with ostracism. The Journal of Social Psychology, 155, 471-482. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2015.1062352

Radel. R., Pelletier, L. G., Sarrazin, P., & Baxter, D. (2014). The paradoxical effect of controlling context on interest in another activity. Learning and Instruction, 29, 95-102. doi:

Di Domenico, S., & Fournier, M. (2014). Socioeconomic status, income inequality, and health complaints: A basic psychological needs perspective. Social Indicators Research, 119, 1679-1697. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0572-8

Britton, P. C., VanOrden, K. A., Hirsch, J. K., Niemiec, C. P., & Williams, G. C. (2014). Basic psychological needs, suicidal ideation, and risk for suicidal behavior in young adults. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 44(4), 362-371. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12074

Kuzucu, Yasar, & (2013). Self-determined choices and consequences: The relationship between basic psychological needs satisfactions and aggression in late adolescents. Journal of General Psychology, 140, 110-129. doi: 10.1080/00221309.2013.771607

Dysvik, A., Kuvaas, B., & Gagné, M. (2013). An investigation of the unique relations between basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1050-1064. doi: 10.1111/jasp.12068

Ng, J.Y.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Stott, K., & Hindle, L. (2013). Predicting psychological needs and well-being of individual weight management: The role of important others. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 5, 291-310. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12011

Di Domenico, S. I., Fournier, M. A., Ayaz, H., & Ruocco, A. C. (2013). In search of integrative processes: Basic psychological need satisfaction predicts medial prefrontal activation during decisional conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(3), 967-978. doi: 10.1037/a0030257

Radel, R., Pelletier, L. G., & Sarrazin, P. (2013). Restoration processes after need thwarting: when autonomy depends on competence. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 234-244. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9308-3

Waaler, R., Halvari, H., Skjesol, K., & Bagoien, T. E. (2012). Autonomy support and intrinsic goal progress expectancy and its links to longitudinal study effort and subjective well-being: The differential mediating effects of intrinsic and identified regulations and the moderator effect of effort and intrinsic goals. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 57, 325-341. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2012.656284

Raj, S. J., & Chettiar, C. (2012). Self-determination theory: How basic psychological needs affect well-being. Biopsychosocial Issues in Positive Health, 3, 17-21.

Sherman, R. A., Nave, C. S., & Funder, D. C. (2012). Properties of persons and situations related to overall and distinctive personality-behavior congruence. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 87–101.

Chatzisarantis, N. L., Kee, Y., Thaung, H. K., & Hagger, M. (2012). When losses do not loom larger than gains: Effects of contextual autonomy support and intrinsic goal on losses and gains. British Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 690-788. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8309.2011.02033.x

Taylor, G., Lekes, N., Gagnon, H., Kwan, L., & Koestner, R. (2012). Need satisfaction, work-school interference and school dropout: An application of self-determination theory. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 622-646. doi: doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8279.2011.0250.x

Brien, M., Forest, J., Mageau, G. A., Boudrias, J. S., Desrumaux, P., Brunet, L., & Morin, E. (2012). The basic psychological needs at work scale: Measurement invariance between Canada and France. Applied Psychology: Heath and Well-Being, 4(2), 167-187. doi: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2012.01067.x

Schuler, J., Brandstatter, V., & Sheldon, K. M. (2012). Do implicit motives and basic psychological needs interact to predict well-being and flow? Testing a universal hypothesis and a matching hypothesis. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 480-495. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9317-2

Hofer, J., & Busch, H. (2011). Satisfying one's needs for competence and relatedness: Consequent domain-specific well-being depends on strength of implicit motives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1147–1158.

Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Ntoumanis, N., Cumming, J., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2011). When feeling attractive matters too much to women: A process underpinning the relation between psychological need satisfaction and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Motivation and Emotion, 35, 413–422.

Mack, D. E., Wilson, P. M., Oster, K., Kowalski, K. C., Sylvester, B. D., & Crocker, P. R. E. (2011). Well-being in volleyball players: Examining the contributions of independent and balanced need satisfaction. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 12, 533-539.

Milyavskaya, M., & Koestner, R. (2011). Psychological needs, motivation, and well-being: A test of Self-Determination Theory across multiple domains. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 387-391. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.10.029

Radel, R., Pelletier, L. G., Sarrazin, P., & Milyavskaya, M. (2011). Restoration process of the need for autonomy: The early alarm stage. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 919–934.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Levels of analysis, regnant causes of behavior, and well-being: The role of psychological needs. Psychological Inquiry, 22, 17-22. doi: 10.1080/1047840x.2011.545978

Sheldon, K. M., & Schuler, J. (2011). Wanting, having, and needing: Integrating motive disposition theory and self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 1106–1123.

Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., Ryan, R. M., Bosch, J. A., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Self-determination theory and diminished functioning: The role of interpersonal control and psychological need thwarting. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1459–1473.

Moller, A. C., Deci, E. L., & Elliot, A. J. (2010). Person-level relatedness and the incremental value of relating. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 754-767.

Sheldon, K. M., Gunz, A., Nichols, C. P., & Ferguson, Y. (2010). Extrinsic value orientation and affective forecasting: Overestimating the rewards, underestimating the costs. Journal of Personality, 78, 149-178.

Koestner, R., Taylor, G., Losier, G. F., & Fichman, L. (2010). Self-regulation and adaptation during and after college: A one-year prospective study. Personality & Individual Difference, 49, 869-873. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.019

Johnson, M. M., & Finney, S. J. (2010). Measuring basic needs satisfaction: Evaluating previous research and conducting new psychometric evaluations of the Basic Needs Satisfaction in General Scale. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, 280-296.

Schuler, J., Sheldon, K. M., & Frohlich, S. M. (2010). Implicit need for achievement moderates the relationship between competence need satisfaction and subsequent motivation. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 1-12.

Uysal, A., Lin, H. L., & Knee, C. R. (2010). The role of need satisfaction in self-concealment and well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 187-199. doi: 10.1177/0146167209354518

Tamborini, R., Bowman, N. D., Eden, A., Grizzard, M., & Organ, A. (2010). Defining media enjoyment as the satisfaction of intrinsic needs. Journal of Communication, 60, 758–777. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2010.01513.x

Tong, E. M., Bishop, G. D., Enkelmann, H. C., Diong, S. M., Why, Y. P., Khader, M., & Ang, J. (2009). Emotion and appraisal profiles of the needs for competence and relatedness. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 31, 218–225.

Milyavskaya, M., Gingras, I., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Gagnon, H., Fang, J., & Boiche, J. (2009). Balance across contexts: Importance of balanced need satisfaction across various life domains. Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 1031-1045.

Ntoumanis, N., Edmunds, J., & Duda, J. L. (2009). Understanding the coping process from a self-determination theory perspective. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 249-260.

Luyckx, K., Vansteenkiste, M., Goossens, L., & Duriez, B. (2009). Basic need satisfaction and identity formation: Bridging self-determination theory and process-oriented identity research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 56, 276-288.

Kashdan, T. B., Mishra, A., Breen, W. E., & Froh, J. J. (2009). Gender differences in gratitude: Examining appraisals, narratives, the willingness to express emotions, and changes in psychological needs. Journal of Personality, 77, 691-730.

Sheldon, K. M., & Gunz, A. (2009). Psychological needs as basic motives, not just experiential requirements. Journal of Personality, 77, 1467-1492.

Sheldon, K. M., & Filak, V. (2008). Manipulating autonomy, competence and relatedness support in a game-learning context: New evidence that all three needs matter. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 267-283.

Meyer, B., Enstrom, M. K., Harstveit, M., Bowles, D. P., & Beevers, C. G. (2007). Happiness and despair on the catwalk: Need satisfaction, well-being, and personality adjustment among fashion models. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 2-17.

Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Harris, J. (2006). From psychological need satisfaction to intentional behavior: Testing a motivational sequence in two behavioral contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 131-148.

Vlachopoulos, S. P., & Michailidou, S. (2006). Development and initial validation of a measure of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in exercise: The basic psychological needs in exercise scale. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 103, 179-201.

Sheldon, K. M., & Niemiec, C. P. (2006). It's not just the amount that counts: Balanced need satisfaction also affects well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 331-341.

Ratelle, C. F., Larose, S., Guay, F., & Senecal, C. (2005). Perceptions of parental involvement and support as predictors of college students' persistence in a Science Curriculum. Journal of Family Psychology, 19, 286-293.

Vereneau, M. H., Koestner, R., & Abela, J. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction and well being in children and adolescents: An application of self determination theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 280-292.

Grouzet, F. M., Vallerand, R. J., Thill, E., & Provencher, P. (2004). From environmental factors to outcomes: A test of an integrated motivational sequence. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 331-346.

Gagné, M. (2003). The role of autonomy support and autonomy orientation in prosocial behavior engagement. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 199-223.

Sheldon, K. M., Elliot, A. J., Kim, Y., & Kasser, T. (2001). What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 325-339.

Reis, H. T, Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 419-435.

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., & Reis, H. T. (1996). What makes for a good day? Competence and autonomy in the day and in the person. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 1270-1279.

Reeve, J., & Sickenius, B. (1994). Development and validation of a brief measure of the three psychological needs underlying intrinsic motivation: The AFS scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 506-515.

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Hadden, Benjamin W., Overup, Camilla S., & Knee, C. R. (2013). Removing the Ego: Need Fulfillment, Self-Image Goals, and Self-Presentation. Self and Identity, 1-20. doi: 10.1080/15298868.2013.815398

Sheldon, K. M. (2011). Integrating behavioral-motive and experiential requirement perspectives on psychological needs: A two process model. Psychological Review, 118, 552–569.

Lightheart, V. L., Wilson, P. M., & Oster, K. (2010). Strength versus balance: The contributions of two different models of psychological need satisfaction to well-being in adapted sport athletes. In I. E. Wells (Ed.), Psychological well-being (pp. 157-170). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Self-determination theory and the role of basic psychological needs in personality and the organization of behavior. In O. P. John, R. W. Robbins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (pp. 654-678). New York: The Guilford Press.

Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being. In L. Bruni, F. Comim, & M. Pugno (Eds.), Capabilities and happiness (pp. 187-223). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). Multilevel modeling of motivation: A Self-determination Theory analysis of basic psychological needs. In A. D. Ong & M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Oxford handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 1158-1183). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Deci, E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2004). Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology. Ricerche di Psichologia, 27, 17-34.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 319-338.