Edward Deci

 

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  • Murayama, K., Matsumoto, M., Izuma, K, Sugiura, A., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Matsumoto, K. (2015). How self-determined choice facilitates performance: A key role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 25, 1241-1251. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht317
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  • Chen, B., Mouratidis, A., Ryan, R. M., Sheldon, K.M., Soenens, B., Van Petegem, S. & Verstuyf, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., Boone, L., Deci, E. L., Van der Kaap-Deeder, J., Duriez, B., Lens, W., & Matos, L. (2015). Basic psychological need satisfaction, need frustration, and need strength across four cultures. Motivation and Emotion, 39, 216-236. doi: DOI 10.1007/s11031-014-9450-1
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  • Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Schultz, P. P., & Niemiec, C. P. (2015). Being aware and functioning fully: Mindfulness and interest-taking within self-determination theory. In K. W. Brown, J. D. Creswell & R. M. Ryan, Handbook of mindfulness: Theory, research, and practice.New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Marsden, K. E., Ma, W. J., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., & Chiu, P. H. (2014). Diminished neural responses predict enhanced intrinsic motivation and sensitivity to external incentive. Cognitive, Affective, Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 276-286. doi: 10.3758/s13415-014-0324-5
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  • Early, D. M., Rogge, R. D., & Deci, E. L. (2014). Engagement, alignment, and rigor as vital signs of high-quality instruction: A classroom visit protocol for instructional improvement and research. High School Journal, 97, 219-239.
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  • Benita, M., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2014). When are mastery goals more adaptive? It depends on experiences of autonomy support and autonomy. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 258-267. doi: 10.1037/a0034007
  • Kasser, T., Dungan, N., Rosenblum, K. L., Sameroff, A. J., Deci, E. L., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Osp, A., Bond, R., & Dittmar, H. (2014). Changes in materialism, changes in psychological well-being: Evidence from three longitudinal studies and an intervention experiment. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11031-013-9371-4
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). Autonomy and need satisfaction in close relationships: Relationships motivation theory. In N. Weinstein, Human motivation and interpersonal relationships: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 53-73). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). The importance of universal psychological needs for understanding motivation in the workplace. In M. Gagne, The Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp. 13-32). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Przybylski, A. K., Deci, E. L., Rigby, C.S., & Ryan, R. M. (2014). Competence-impeding electronic games and players’ aggressive feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 441-457. doi: 10.1037/a0034820
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  • Ryan, R. M., Curren, R. R., & Deci, E. L. (2013). What humans need: Flourishing in Aristotelian philosophy and self-determination theory. In A. S. Waterman (Eds.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia (pp. 57-75). Washington, WA: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/14092-004
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2013). Toward a social psychology of assimilation: Self-determination theory in cognitive development and education. In B. W. Sokol, F. M. E. Grouzet, U. Muller (Eds.), Self-regulation and autonomy: Social and developmental dimensions of human conduct (pp. 191-207). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/cbo9781139152198.014
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  • Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., & Guay, F. (2013). Self-determination theory and actualization of human potential. In D. McInerney, H. Marsh, R. Craven, & F. Guay (Eds.), Theory driving research: New wave perspectives on self processes and human development (pp. 109-133). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Press.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). The importance of autonomy for development and well-being. In B. W. Sokol, F. M. E. Grouzet, U. Muller (Eds.), Self-regulation and autonomy: Social and developmental dimensions of human conduct (pp. 19-46). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
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  • Pelletier, L. G., Rocchi, M. A., Vallerand, R. J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2013). Validation of the revised sport motivation scale (SMS-II). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 329-341. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.12.002
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  • Halvari, A., Halvari, H., Bjørnebekk, G., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Motivation for dental home care: Testing a self-determination theory model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, 1-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00867.x
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  • Halvari, A., Halvari, H., Bjørnebekk, & Deci, E. L. (2012). Self-determined motivational predictors of increases in dental behaviors, decreases in dental plaque, and improvement in oral health: a randomized clinical trial. Health Psychology, 31, 777-88. doi: 10.1037/a0027062
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  • Ryan, R. M., Legate, N., Niemiec, C. P., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Beyond illusions and defense: Exploring the possibilities and limits of human autonomy and responsibility through self-determination theory. In P. R. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (Eds.), Meaning, mortality, and choice: The social psychology of existential concerns (pp. 215-233). Washington, WA: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/13748-012
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  • Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2012). Motivation, meaning and wellness: A self-determination perspective on the creation and internalization of personal meanings and life goals. In P. T. P. Wang (Ed.), The human quest for meaning: Theories, research, and applications (pp. 81-106). New York: Routledge Publishers. doi: 10.4324/9780203146286
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Self-determination theory in health care and its relations to motivational interviewing: a few comments. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, 1-6. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-24
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Self-determination theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology: Vol. 1 (pp. 416-437). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi: 10.4135/9781446201022
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  • Sarrazin, P., Pelletier, L. G., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Nourrir une motivation autonome et des conséquences positives dans différents milieux de vie : Les apports de la théorie de l’autodétermination. In Charles Martin-Krumm et Cyril Tarquinio (Eds.), Traité de psychologie positiveBruxelles, Belgium: De Boeck.
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  • Ng, J. Y. Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Duda, J. L., & Williams, G. C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691612447309
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2011). A self-determination theory perspective on social, institutional, cultural, and economic supports for autonomy and their importance for well-being. In V. I. Chirkov, R. M. Ryan & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Human autonomy in cross-cultural context: Perspectives on the psychology of agency, freedom, and well-being (pp. 45-64). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2011). Multiple identities within a single self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization within contexts and cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self & identity (pp. 253-274). New York: The Guilford Press.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., & Deci, E. L. (2011). Motivation and autonomy in counseling, psychotherapy, and behavior change: A look at theory and practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 193-260. doi:
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  • Williams, G. C., Patrick, H., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Lavigne, H. M. (2011). The Smoker’s Health Project: A self-determination theory intervention to facilitate maintenance of tobacco abstinence. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 32, 535-543.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Levels of analysis, regnant causes of behavior, and well-being: The role of psychological needs. Psychological Inquiry, 22, 17-22. doi: 10.1080/1047840x.2011.545978
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  • Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2011). Autonomy as process and outcome: Revisiting cultural and practical issues in motivation for counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 286–302. doi: 10.1177/0011000010388424
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  • Friedman, R., Deci, E. L., Elliot, A. J., Moller, A. C., & Aarts, H. (2010). Priming motivational orientations with observations of others' behaviors. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 34-38. doi: 10.1007/s11031-009-9151-3
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  • Halvari, A., Halvari, H., Bjørnebekk, G., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Motivation and anxiety for dental treatment: Testing a self-determination theory model of oral self-care behaviour and dental clinic attendance. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 15-33. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9154-0
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  • Vansteenkiste, M., Smeets, S., Soenens, B., Lens, W., Matos, L., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Autonomous and controlled regulation of performance-approach goals: Their relations to perfectionism and educational outcomes. Motivation and Emotion, 34, 333–353. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9188-3
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  • Moller, A. C., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Interpersonal control, dehumanization, and violence: A self-determination theory perspective. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 13, 41-53.
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  • Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It's not autonomy support or structure, but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 588-600.
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  • Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Self-determination theory and the relation of autonomy to self-regulatory processes and personality development. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of personality and self-regulation (pp. 169-191). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
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  • Moller, A. C., Deci, E. L., & Elliot, A. J. (2010). Person-level relatedness and the incremental value of relating. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 754-767.
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  • Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Autonomy as process and outcome: Revisiting cultural and practical issues in motivation for counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 39 doi: DOI: 10.1177/0011000010388424
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  • Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Patrick, H., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2010). The energization of health-behavior change: Examining the associations among autonomous self-regulation, subjective vitality, depressive symptoms, and tobacco abstinence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 122-138.
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  • Deci, E. L. (2009). Large-scale school reform as viewed from the self-determination theory perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 244-252.
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  • Zhou, M., Ma, W. J., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The importance of autonomy for rural Chinese children's motivation for learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 492-498.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Williams, G. C., Patrick, H., & Deci, E. L. (2009). Self-determination theory and physical activity: The dynamics of motivation in development and wellness. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 6, 107-124.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). Promoting self-determined school engagement: Motivation, learning, and well-being. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook on motivation at school (pp. 171-196). New York, NY: Routledge.
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  • Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 291-306.
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  • Roth, G., Assor, A., Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1119–1142.
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  • Williams, G. C., Niemiec, C. P., Patrick, H., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The importance of supporting autonomy and perceived competence in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 315-324.
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  • Stone, D., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Beyond talk: Creating autonomous motivation through self-determination theory. Journal of General Management, 34, 75-91.
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  • Niemiec, C. P., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2009). Aspiring to physical health: The role of aspirations for physical health in facilitating long-term tobacco abstinence. Patient Education and Counseling, 74, 250-257.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 139-170.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). A self-determination approach to psychotherapy: The motivational basis for effective change. Canadian Psychology, 49, 186-193.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). From ego-depletion to vitality: Theory and findings concerning the facilitation of energy available to the self. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 702-717.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Self-determination theory and the role of basic psychological needs in personality and the organization of behavior. In O. P. John, R. W. Robbins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (pp. 654-678). New York: The Guilford Press.
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  • Kim, Y., Carver, C. S., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2008). Adult attachment and psychological well-being in cancer caregivers: The meditational role of spouses’ motives for caregiving. Health Psychology, 27, S144-S154.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: An introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 1-11.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Patrick, H., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2008). Facilitating health behaviour change and its maintenance: Interventions based on self-determination theory. The European Health Psychologist, 10, 2-5.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2007). Active human nature: Self-determination theory and the promotion and maintenance of sport, exercise, and health. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 1-19). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
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  • Reeve, J., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Jang, H. (2007). Understanding and promoting autonomous self-regulation: A self-determination theory perspective. In D. Schunk & B. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning: Theory, research, and application (pp. 223-244). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
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  • Moller, A. C., Friedman, R., & Deci, E. L. (2006). A self-determination theory perspectives on the interpersonal and intrapersonal aspects of self-esteem. In M. H. Kernis (Ed.), Self-esteem issues and answers: A sourcebook of current perspectives (pp. 125-131). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
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  • Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self-determination theory: Another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 41, 19-31.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Self-regulation and the problem of human autonomy: Does psychology need choice, self-determiniation, and will?. Journal of Personality, 74, 1557-1586. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00420.x
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  • Williams, G. C., McGregor, H. A., Sharp, D., Levesque, C. S., Kouides, R. W., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Testing a self-determination theory intervention for motivating tobacco cessation: Supporting autonomy and competence in a clinical trial. Health Psychology, 25, 91-101.
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  • Williams, G. C., McGregor, H. A., Sharp, D., Kouides, R. W., Levesque, C. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). A self-determination multiple risk intervention trial to improve smokers’ health. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21, 1288-1294.
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  • Moller, A. C., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2006). Self-determination theory and public policy: Improving the quality of consumer decisions without using coercion. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 25, 104-116.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., Grolnick, W. S., & La Guardia, J. G. (2006). The significance of autonomy and autonomy support in psychological development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and method (Vol 1, pp. 795-849). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
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  • Niemiec, C. P., Lynch, M. F., Vansteenkiste, M., Bernstein, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). The antecedents and consequences of autonomous self-regulation for college: A self-determination theory perspective on socialization. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 761-775.
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  • Moller, A. C., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). Choice and ego-depletion: The moderating role of autonomy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 1024-1036.
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  • Deci, E. L., La Guardia, J. G., Moller, A. C., Scheiner, M. J., & Ryan, R. M. (2006). On the benefits of giving as well as receiving autonomy support: Mutuality in close friendships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 313-327.
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  • Gagné, M., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362.
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  • Williams, G. C., Gagné, M., Mushlin, A. I., & Deci, E. L. (2005). Motivation for behavior change in patients with chest pain. Health Education, 105, 304-321.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Moller, A. C. (2005). The concept of competence: A starting place for understanding intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation. In A. J. Elliot & C. J. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 579-597). New York: Guilford Press.
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  • Deci, E. L. (2004). Promoting intrinsic motivation and self-determination in people with mental retardation. In H. N. Switzky (Ed.), Personality and motivational systems in mental retardation, Vol. 28 (pp. 1-29). San Diego: Elsevier Academic Press.
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  • Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, S., De Witte, H., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The “why” and “why not” of job search behavior: Their relation to searching, unemployment experience, and well-being. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 345-363.
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  • Williams, G. C., McGregor, H. A., Zeldman, A., Freedman, Z. R., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Testing a self-determination theory process model for promoting glycemic control through diabetes self-management. Health Psychology, 23, 58-66.
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  • Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. L. (2004). The emotional costs of perceived parental conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-87.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Avoiding death or engaging life as accounts of meaning and culture: A comment on Pyszczynski, Greenberg, Solomon, Arndt, and Schimel. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 473-477.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Autonomy is no illusion: Self-determination theory and the empirical study of authenticity, awareness, and will. In J. Greenberg, S. L. Koole, & T. Pyszczynski (Eds.), Handbook of experimental existential psychology (pp. 449-479). New York: Guilford Press.
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  • Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 246-260.
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  • Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: It's both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 475-486.
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  • Baard, P. P., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Intrinsic need satisfaction: A motivational basis of performance and well-being in two work settings. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 2045-2068.
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  • Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding socio-cultural influences on student motivation. In D. M. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Big theories revisited (pp. 31-60). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Press.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2004). Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology. Ricerche di Psichologia, 27, 17-34.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2003). On assimilating identities to the self: A self-determination theory perspective on internalization and integrity within cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook on self & identity (pp. 253-274). New York: The Guilford Press.
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  • Vansteenkiste, M., & Deci, E. L. (2003). Competitively contingent rewards and intrinsic motivation: Can losers remain motivated?. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 273-299.
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  • Williams, G. C., Levesque, C. S., Zeldman, A., Wright, S., & Deci, E. L. (2003). Health care practitioners' motivation for tobacco-dependence counseling. Health Education Research, 18, 538-553.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). An overview of self-determination theory. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
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  • Williams, G. C., Minicucci, D. S., Kouides, R. W., Levesque, C. S., Chirkov, V. I., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). Self-determination, smoking, diet and health. Health Education Research, 17, 512-521.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Self-determination research: Reflections and future directions. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 431-441). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). The paradox of achievement: The harder you push, the worse it gets. In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academic achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education (pp. 61-87). San Diego: Academic Press.
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  • Kim, Y., Deci, E. L., & Zuckerman, M. (2002). Development of the self-regulation of withholding negative emotions questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 316-336.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In S. Fiske (Ed), Annual review of psychology (Vol 52, pp. 141-166). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.
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  • Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (2001). Activating patients for smoking cessation through physician autonomy support. Medical Care, 39, 813-823.
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  • Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., Gagné, M., Leone, D. R., Usunov, J., & Kornazheva, B. P. (2001). Need satisfaction, motivation, and well-being in the work organizations of a former Eastern Bloc country. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 930-942.
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  • Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation in education: Reconsidered once again. Review of Educational Research., 71, 1-27.
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  • Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors' autonomy support and students' autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740-756.
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  • Williams, G. C., Frankel, R., Campbell, T. L., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Research on relationship-centered care and health-care outcomes from the Rochester biopsychosocial program: A self-determination theory integration. Families, Systems & Health, 18, 79-90.
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  • La Guardia, J. G., Ryan, R. M., Couchman, C. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Within-person variation in security of attachment: A self-determination theory perspective on attachment, need fulfillment, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 367-384.
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  • Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Hedberg, V.,, & Deci, E. L. (2000). Extrinsic life goals and health risk behaviors in adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 30, 1756-1771.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The darker and brighter sides of human existence: Basic psychological needs as a unifying concept. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 319-338.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). When rewards compete with nature: The undermining of intrinsic motivation and self-regulation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: The search for optimal motivation and performance (pp. 13-54). New York: Academic Press.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). La teoría de la autodeterminación y la facilitación de la motivación intrínseca, el desarrollo social, y el bienestar. Spanish translation of article appearing in American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The 'what' and 'why' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.
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  • Chirkov, V. I., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Svyazi mezhdu zdorov'em ctudentov i ih zhiznennumi stremleniyami, vospriyatiem roditelei i uchiteleii [Relations among students' health, life aspirations and perception of parents and teachers]. Voprosy Psikhologii, 3, 48-57.
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  • Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Kouides, R., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Presenting the facts about smoking to adolescents: The effects of an autonomy supportive style. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 959-964.
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  • Nix, G. A., Ryan, R. M., Manly, J. B., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Revitalization through self-regulation: The effects of autonomous and controlled motivation on happiness and vitality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 266-284.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Approaching and avoiding self-determination: comparing cybernetic and organismic paradigms of motivation. In C. Carver & M. Scheier (Eds.), Perspectives on behavioral self-regulation: Advances in social cognition (Vol XII, pp. 193-215). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Chirkov, V. I., Little, T. D., Sheldon, K. M., Timoshina, E., & Deci, E. L. (1999). The American dream in Russia: Extrinsic aspirations and well-being in two cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1509-1524.
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  • Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). The undermining effect is a reality after all: Extrinsic rewards, task interest, and self-determination. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 692-700.
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  • Deci, E. L., Koestner, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1999). A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 627-668.
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  • Deci, E. L. (1998). The relation of interest to motivation and human needs: The self-determination theory viewpoint. In L. Hoffmann, A. Krapp, K. A. Renninger, & J. Baumert (Eds.), Interest and learning (pp. 146-162). Kiel, Germany: Institute for Science Education.
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  • Williams, G. C., Freedman, Z. R., & Deci, E. L. (1998). Supporting autonomy to motivate glucose control in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 21, 1644-1651.
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  • Williams, G. C., Rodin, G. C., Ryan, R. M., Grolnick, W. S., & Deci, E. L. (1998). Autonomous regulation and adherence to long-term medical regimens in adult outpatients. Health Psychology, 17, 269-276.
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  • Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1998). The importance of supporting autonomy in medical education. Annals of Internal Medicine, 129, 303-308.
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  • Williams, G. C., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1998). Building health-care partnerships by supporting autonomy: Promoting maintained behavior change and positive health outcomes. In A. L. Suchman, P. Hinton-Walker, & R. Botelho (Eds.), Partnerships in healthcare: Transforming relational process (pp. 67-87). Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press..
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  • Ryan, R. M., Kuhl, J., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Nature and autonomy: An organizational view on the social and neurobiological aspects of self-regulation in behavior and development.. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 701-728.
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  • Wild, T. C., Enzle, M. E., Nix, G., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Perceiving others as intrinsically or extrinsically motivated: Effects on expectancy formation and task engagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 837-848.
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  • Williams, G. C., Saizow, R., Ross, L., & Deci, E. L. (1997). Motivation underlying career choice for internal medicine and surgery. Social Science and Medicine, 45, 1705-1713.
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  • Grolnick, W. S., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Internalization within the family: The self-determination theory perspective. In J. E. Grusec & L. Kuczynski (Eds.), Parenting and children's internalization of values: A handbook of contemporary theory (pp. 135-161). New York: Wiley.
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  • Deci, E. L., Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1997). Self-determined teaching in colleges and universities: Possibilities and obstacles. In J. Bess (Ed), Teaching well and liking it: Motivating faculty to teach effectively (pp. 57-71). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Sheldon, K. M., Kasser, T., & Deci, E. L. (1996). All goals are not created equal: An organismic perspective on the nature of goals and their regulation. In P. M. Gollwitzer & J. A. Bargh (Eds.), The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 7-26). New York: Guilford Press.
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  • Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Elements within the competitive situation that affect intrinsic motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 24-33.
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  • Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z. R., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115-126.
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  • Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767-779.
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  • Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M., & Williams, G. C. (1996). Need satisfaction and the self-regulation of learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8, 165-183.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). Autonomy, relatedness, and the self: Their relation to development and psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Theory and methods (Vol 1, pp. 618-655). New York: Wiley.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In M. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 31-49). New York: Plenum Publishing Co.
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  • Williams, G. C., Wiener, M. W., Markakis, K. M., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (1994). Medical student motivation for internal medicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 9, 327-333.
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  • Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119-142.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Die Selbstbestimmungstheorie Der Motivation Und Ihre Bedeutung Für Die Pädagogik. Zeitschrift Für Pädagogik, 39, 223-238.
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  • Deci, E. L., Driver, R. E., Hotchkiss, L., Robbins, R. J., & Wilson, I. M. (1993). The relation of mothers' controlling vocalizations to children's intrinsic motivation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 155, 151-162.
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  • Vroom, V. H., & Deci, E. L. (1992). Management and motivation, Second Edition. London: Penguin. doi: 0
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  • Rigby, C.S., Deci, E. L., Patrick, B. C, & Ryan, R. M. (1992). Beyond the intrinsic-extrinsic dichotomy: Self-determination in motivation and learning. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 165-185.
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  • Deci, E. L., Hodges, R., Pierson, L., & Tomassone, J. (1992). Autonomy and competence as motivational factors in students with learning disabilities and emotional handicaps. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25, 457-471.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Koestner, R., & Deci, E. L. (1991). Ego-involved persistence: When free-choice behavior is not intrinsically motivated. Motivation and Emotion, 15, 185-205.
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  • Grolnick, W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1991). The inner resources for school performance: Motivational mediators of children's perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 53, 508-517.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Perspectives on motivation, Vol. 38 (pp. 237-288). Lincoln, NE: University Of Nebraska Press.
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  • Williams, G. C., Quill, T. E., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). The facts concerning the recent carnival of smoking in Connecticut (and elsewhere). Annals of Internal Medicine, 115, 59-63.
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  • Deci, E. L., Vallerand, R. J., Pelletier, L. G., & Ryan, R. M. (1991). Motivation and education: The self-determination perspective. The Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1989). Bridging the research traditions of task/ego involvement and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation: A commentary on Butler (1987). Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 265-268.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Olson, B. C. (1989). Motivation and competition: Their role in sports. In J. H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play (pp. 83-110). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
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  • Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Lacouture, Y., & Deci, E. L. (1987). L'echelle des Orientations Generales a la Causalite: Validation Canadienne Francaise du General Causality Orientations scale. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 19, 1-15.
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  • Vallerand, R. J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). Intrinsic motivation in sport. In K. Pandolf (Ed,), Exercise and sport science reviews, Vol. 15 (pp. 389-425). New York: Macmillan.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1986). The dynamics of self-determination in personality and development. In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Self-related cognitions in anxiety and motivation (pp. 171-194). Hillside, NY: Erlbaum.
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  • Ryan, R. M., Connell, J. P., & Deci, E. L. (1985). A motivational analysis of self-determination and self-regulation in education. In C. Ames & R. E. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: The classroom in milieu (pp. 13-51). New York: Academic Press.
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  • Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1985). The third selective paradigm and the role of human motivation in cultural and biological selection: A response to Csikszentmihalyi and Massimini. New Ideas in Psychology, 3, 259-264.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109-134.
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  • Benware, C., & Deci, E. L. (1984). The quality of learning with an active versus passive motivational set. American Educational Research Journal, 21, 755-766.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1983). The basis of self-determination: Intrinsic motivation and integrated internalizations. Academic Psychology Bulletin, 5, 21-29.
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  • Deci, E. L., Speigel, N. H., Ryan, R. M., Koestner, R., & Kauffman, M. (1982). The effects of performance standards on teaching styles: The behavior of controlling teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 852-859.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1982). Intrinsic motivation to teach: Possibilities and obstacles in our colleges and universities. In J. Bess (Ed.), New directions in teaching and learning (pp. 27-36). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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  • Deci, E. L., Betley, G., Kahle, J., Abrams, L., & Porac, J. (1981). When trying to win: Competition and intrinsic motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 79-83.
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  • Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A. J., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adults' orientations toward control versus autonomy with children: Reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 642-650.
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  • Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1980). The empirical exploration of intrinsic motivational processes. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol 13, pp. 39-80). New York: Academic Press.
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  • Zuckerman, M., Porac, J. F., Lathin, D., Smith, R., & Deci, E. L. (1978). On the importance of self-determination for intrinsically motivated behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 443-446.
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  • Deci, E. L., Cascio, W. F., & Krusell, J. (1975). Cognitive evaluation theory and some comments on the Calder and Staw critique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 81-85.
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  • Deci, E. L. (1972). The effects of contingent and non-contingent rewards and controls on intrinsic motivation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 8, 217-229.
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