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Huffington Post: NFL Draft Preparation: Put Your Money Where Your Mindset Is

March 3, 2013 by Shannon

March 3rd 2013. Nick Winkelman, the Director of Training Systems and Education at Athletes’ Performance’s Phoenix facility, has a mission to make his NFL hopefuls prepared for “the immensity of the moment.” He and his colleagues employ training techniques based on Self Determination Theory. Developed by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan at the University...

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Sport, Exercise, and Physical Education

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Coaching

Inguglia, C., Ingoglia, S., Leale, I., Iannello, N. M., Gennaro, A., Manzano-Sánchez, D., Gómez-López, M., & Battaglia, G. (2023). Psychological antecedents of Italian sport coaches’ coaching behaviors: The role of basic psychological needs, motivation and subjective vitality. Healthcare, 11, 2797. doi: 10.3390/healthcare11202797

Shannon, S., Brick, N., Prentice, G., & Breslin, G. (2023). The Influence of Athletes’ Psychological Needs on Motivation, Burnout and Well-Being: a Test of Self-Determination Theory. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, Advance Online

Lemelin, E., Carpentier, J., Gadoury, S., Petit, E., Forest, J., Richard, J-P., Joussemet, M., & Mageau, G. A. (2023). . In , The reROOT coaching program: A pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating its impact on coaching style and athlete sports development (Vol Advance Online, pp. 1-14). : . doi: 10.1123/iscj.2022-0099

Lemelin, E., Kil, H., Petit, E., Carpentier, J., Forest, J., Gadoury, S., Richard, J-P., Joussemet, M., & Mageau, G. A. (2023). . In , How to support athlete autonomy in university sports: Coaches’ experience of the reROOT Program (Vol Advance Online publication). : . doi: 10.1123/tsp.2022-0124

Langdon, J. L., Benish, D., & Masen, E. (2023). Using concepts from Self-Determination Theory to enhance the application of an already-existing coach assessment in youth coach professional development: Autonomy support and the CoachDISC profile. International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education, 7(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1080/24711616.2021.1975519

Lemelin, E., Verner-Filion, J., Carpentier, J., Carbonneau, N., & Mageau, G. A. (2022). Autonomy support in sport contexts: The role of parents and coaches in the promotion of athlete well-being and performance. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 11(3), 305-319. doi: 10.1037/spy0000287

Mossman, L. H., Slemp, G., Lewis, K. J., Colla, R. H., & O'Halloran, P. (2022). Autonomy support in sport and exercise settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Advance Online, 1-24. doi: 10.1080/1750984X.2022.2031252

Shannon, S., Prentice, G., & Breslin, G. (2021). Athletes’ psychological needs and coaches’ interpersonal behaviors: A within-person latent profile analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 43(1), 71-82. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2019-0295

Ahrens, A. D., & Chu, T. L. (2021). Motivation Is Not Always Black and White: Attending to African American Athletes' Psychological Needs for Sport Involvement. A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 34(2), 9-12. doi: 10.1080/08924562.2020.1867269

Benish, D., Langdon, J. L., & Culp, B. (2021). Previous experiences of novice coaches and their coach-created motivational climate: a collective case study. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy doi: 10.1080/17408989.2021.1993169

Benish, D., & Langdon, J. L. (2021). Examination of novice coaches' previous experience as athletes: Examples of autonomy support and controlling behaviors as influences on future coaching practice. International Sport Coaching Journal, Ahead of Print, 1–14. doi: 10.1123/iscj.2019-0031

Chu, T. L., Zhang, X., Lee, J., & Zhang, T. (2021). Perceived coach-created environment directly predicts high school athletes’ physical activity during sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 16(1), 70-80. doi: 10.1177/1747954120959733

Sommerfield, B., & Chu, T. L. (2020). Coaches can utilize parents to optimize youth athletes' sport experience. Strategies, 33(2), 25-31. doi: 10.1080/08924562.2019.1705219

Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardly, I. D., & Sedikides, C. (2020). Narcissism, beliefs about controlling interpersonal style, and moral disengagement in sport coaches. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18:5, 592-606. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2018.1549580

Bhavsar, N., Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Gucciardi, D. F., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C., Ryan, R. M., Reeve, J., Sarrazin, P., & Bartholomew, K. J. (2019). Conceptualizing and testing a new tripartite measure of coach interpersonal behaviors. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 44, 107-120. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.05.006

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2019). Supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness: The coaching process from a self-determination theory perspective. In P. Brownell, S. English, & J. Sabatine (Eds.), Professional coaching: Principles and practice (pp. 231-246). New York, NY: Springer.

Chu, T. L., & Zhang, T. (2019). The roles of coaches, peers, and parents in athletes’ basic psychological needs: A mixed-studies review. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 14(4), 569–588. doi: 10.1177/1747954119858458

Delrue, J., van Puyenbroeck, S., Reynders, B., Vande Broek, G., Aelterman, N., De Backer, M., Decroos, S., De Muynck, G-J., Fontaine, J., & Fransen, K. (2019). Adopting a helicopter-perspective towards motivating and demotivating coaching: A circumplex approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 40, 110-126. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.08.008

Haerens, L., Vansteenkiste, M., De Meester, A., Delrue, J., Tallir, I., Vande Broek, G., Goris, W., & Aelterman, N. (2018). Different combinations of perceived autonomy support and control: identifying the most optimal motivating style. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(1), 16-36. doi: 10.1080/17408989.2017.1346070

Ntoumanis, N., Kaffe, S., Gucciardi, D. F., Backhouse, S. H., Barkoukis, V., Quested, E., Patterson, L., Smith, B. J., Whitaker, L., & Pavlidis, G. (2018). . In , An intervention to optimize coach motivational climates and reduce athlete willingness to dope (CoachMADE): Protocol for a cross-cultural cluster randomized control trial (Vol 9, pp. 1-12). : . doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02301

Ntoumanis, N., Barkoukis, V., Gucciardi, D. F., & Chan, D. K. C. (2017). Linking coach interpersonal style with athlete doping intentions and doping use: A prospective study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 39, 188-198. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2016-0243

Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardley, I. D., Sedikides, C., Stewart, B. D., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2017). Narcissism and coach interpersonal style: A self-determination theory perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 27(2), 254-261. doi: doi:10.1111/sms.12635

Matosic, D., Ntoumanis, N., Boardley, I. D., Sedikides, C., Stewart, B. D., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2017). Narcissism and coach interpersonal style: A self-determination theory perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 27, 254-261. doi: 10.1111/sms.12635

Delrue, J., Vansteenkiste, M., Mouratidis, A., Gevaert, K., Broek, G.V., & Haerens, L. (2017). A game-to-game investigation of the relation between need- supportive and need-thwarting coaching and moral behavior in soccer. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 31, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.010

Gucciardi, D. F., Stamatis, A., & Ntoumanis, N. (2017). Controlling coaching and athlete thriving in elite adolescent netballers: The buffering effect of athletes’ mental toughness. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20, 718-722. doi: 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.007

Appleton, P. R., Ntoumanis, N., Quested, E., Viladrich, C., & Duda, J. (2016). Initial validation of the coach-created Empowering and Disempowering Motivational Climate Questionnaire (EDMCQ-C). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 53-65. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.013

Gaudreau, P., Morinville, A., Gareau, A., Verner-Filion, J., Green-Demers, I., & Franche, V. (2016). Autonomy support from parents and coaches: Synergistic or compensatory effects on sport-related outcomes of adolescent-athletes?. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 25, 89-99. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.04.006

Mahoney, J. W., Gucciardi, D. F., Gordon, S., & Ntoumanis, N. (2016). Training a coach to be autonomy‐supportive: An avenue for nurturing mental toughness. In S. Cotterill, N. Weston, and G. Breslin (Eds.), Sport and exercise psychology: Practitioner case studies (pp. 193-214). New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

Langan, E., Toner, J., Blake, C., & Lonsdale, C. (2015). . In , Testing the effects of a self-determination theory-based intervention with youth Gaelic football coaches on athlete motivation and burnout (Vol 29(4), pp. 293-301). : . doi: 10.1123/tsp.2013-0107

Langdon, J. L., Harris, B. S., Burdette, G. P., & Rothberger, S. (2015). Development and implementation of an autonomy supportive training program among youth sport coaches. Autonomy Support Training in Youth Sport, 2, 169–177. doi: 10.1123/iscj.2014-0068

Langdon, J. L., Schlote, R., Harris, B., Burdette, G., & Rothberger, S. (2015). Effects of a training program to enhance autonomy supportive behaviors among youth soccer coaches. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 10, 1-14. doi: 10.14198/jhse.2015.101.01

Castillo, I., Tomás, I., Ntoumanis, N., Bartholomew, K. J., Duda, J.L., & Balaguer, I. (2014). The Spanish version of the Controlling Coach Behaviors Scale in the Sport Context: Psychometric properties and invariance over time and competitive level. Psicothema, 26, 409-414.

Carpentier, J., & Mageau, G. A. (2014). The role of coaches’ passion and athletes’ motivation in the prediction of change-oriented feedback quality and quantity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 326-335. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.02.005

Paige Pope, J., & Wilson, P. M. (2014). Testing a sequence of relationships from interpersonal coaching styles to rugby performance, guided by the coach–athlete motivation model. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13(3), 1-15. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2014.956325

Rocchi, M., Pelletier, L. G., & Couture, A. L. (2013). Determinants of coach motivation and autonomy supportive coaching behaviours. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14, 852-859. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.07.002

Spence, G. B., & Deci, E. L. (2013). Self-determination theory within coaching contexts: Supporting motives and goals that promote well-being and effective performance. In Clutterbuck, D. Megginson, & S. David (Eds.), Beyond Goals: Effective Strategies for Coaching and Mentoring (pp. 85-108). London: Gower Publishing.

Jõesaar, H., Hein, V., & Hagger, M. S. (2012). Youth athletes’ perception of autonomy support from the coach, peer motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in sport setting: One-year effects. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 257-262. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.001

Hodge, K., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). Prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport: The role of coaching style, autonomous vs. controlled motivation, and moral disengagement. Journal of sport & exercise psychology, 33(4), 527-547. doi: 10.1123/jsep.33.4.527

Sheldon, K. M., & Watson, A. (2011). Coach’s autonomy support is especially important for varsity compared to club and recreational athletes. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 6, 109-123.

Gillet, N., Vallerand, R. J., Amoura, S., & Baldes, B. (2010). Influence of coaches’ autonomy support on athletes’ motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 155-161. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.004

Smith, A., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2010). An investigation of coach behaviors, goal motives, and implementation intentions as predictors of well-being in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 17-33.

Bartholomew, K. J., Ntoumanis, N., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 193-216.

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(2), 193-216. doi: 10.1123/jsep.32.2.193

Wang, C. K. J., Koh, K. T., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2009). An intra-individual analysis of players’ perceived coaching behaviours, psychological needs, and achievement goals. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4, 177-192.

Álvarez, M. S., Balaguer, I., Castillo, I., & Duda, J. L. (2009). Coach autonomy support and quality of sport engagement in young soccer players. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 12, 138-148. doi:

Ahlberg, M., Mallett, C. J., & Tinning, T. (2008). Developing autonomy supportive coaching behaviors: An action research approach to coach development.. International Journal of Coaching Science, 2, 1-20.

Conroy, D. E., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2007). Assessing autonomy-supportive coaching strategies in youth sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 671-684. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.001

Reinboth, M., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2004). Dimensions of coaching behavior, need satisfaction, and the psychological and physical welfare of young athletes. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 297-313. doi: 10.1023/B:MOEM.0000040156.81924.b8

Gagné, M., Ryan, R. M., & Bargmann, K. (2003). Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 372-390. doi: 10.1080/714044203

Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). The coach-athlete relationship: A motivational model. Journal of Sports Science, 21(11), 883-904. doi: 10.1080/0264041031000140374

Chapters, Overviews, and Commentaries

Strachan, Shaelyn M., Fortier, M. S., Perras, Melanie G. M., & Lugg, Carrie (2013). Understanding variations in exercise-dentity strength through identity theory and self-determination theory. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 273-285. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2013.749005

Guerin, Eva, Fortier, M. S., & Sweet, Shane N. (2013). An experience sampling study of physical activity and positive affect: investigating the role of situational motivation and perceived intensity across time. Health Psychology Research, 1, 100-110. doi: 10.4081/hpr.2013.e21

Sweet, Shane N., Fortier, M. S., Strachan, Shaelyn M., & Blanchard, Chris M. (2012). Testing and integrating self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory in a physical activity context. Canadian Psychololgy, 53, 319-327. doi: 10.1037/a0030280

Guerin, Eva, Bales, Elena, Sweet, Shane N., & Fortier, M. S. (2012). A meta-analysis of the influence of gender on self-determination theory's motivational regulations for physical activity. Canadian Psychology, 53, 291-300. doi: 10.1037/a0030215

Fortier, M. S., Duda, J. L., Guerin, E., & Teixeira, P. J. (2012). . In , Promoting physical activity: Development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions (Vol 9, pp. 1-14). : .

Fortier, M. S., Wiseman, Elizabeth, Sweet, Shane N., O'Sullivan, Tracey L., Blanchard, Chris M., Sigal, Ronald J., & Hogg, William (2011). A moderated mediation of motivation on physical activity in the context of the physical activity counseling randomized control trial. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 71-78. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.08.001

Pearson, E. S. (2011). The ‘how-to’ of health behaviour change brought to life: A theoretical analysis of the Co-Active coaching model and its underpinnings in self-determination theory. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 4, 89-103.

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2011). Self-determination theory and the darker side of athletic experience: The role of interpersonal control and need thwarting. Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7, 23-27.

Edmunds, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2010). Psychological needs and the prediction of exercise-related cognitions and affect among an ethnically diverse cohort of adult women.. International Journal of Sport and Exercise, 8, 446-463.

Lightheart, V. L., Wilson, P. M., & Oster, K. (2010). Strength versus balance: The contributions of two different models of psychological need satisfaction to well-being in adapted sport athletes. In I. E. Wells (Ed.), Psychological well-being (pp. 157-170). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Vlachopoulos, S., Ntoumanis, N., & Smith, A. L. (2010). Psychological needs in exercise scale: Translation and evidence for cross-cultural validity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 8, 394-412.

Wilson, P. M., Mack, D. E., Garcia Bengoechea, E., Bin, X., Cheung, S., & Sylvester, B. D. (2010). Understanding sport friendships in adapted sport athletes: Does fulfilling basic psychological needs matter?. In B. D. Geranto (Ed.), Sport psychology (pp. 113-130). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C. (2010). The controlling interpersonal style in a coaching context: Development and initial validation of a psychometric scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(2), 193-216. doi: 10.1123/jsep.32.2.193

Dimmock, J., & Banting, L. K. (2009). The influence of implicit cognitive processes on physical activity: How the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory can provide a platform for our understanding. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2, 3-22.

Edmunds, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2009). Helping your clients and patients take ownership over their exercise: Fostering exercise adoption, adherence and associated well-being. ACSMs Health and Fitness Journal, 13, 20-25.

Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Hagger, M. S. (2009). . In , Effects of an intervention based on self-determination theory on self-reported leisure-time physical activity participation (Vol 24, pp. 29-48). : .

Wilson, P. M., Gregson, J. P., & Mack, D. E. (2009). The importance of interpersonal style in competitive sport: A self-determination theory approach. In C. H. Chang (Ed.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 259-276). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

Ntoumanis, N., & Standage, M. (2009). Motivation in physical education classes: A self-determination theory perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 194-202.

Bartholomew, K., Ntoumanis, N., & Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2009). A review of controlling motivational strategies from a self-determination theory perspective: Implications for sports coaches. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2, 215-233.

Duda, J. L., & Treasure, D. (2009). Motivational processes and the facilitation of quality engagement in sport. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychologyMountain View, CA: Mayfield.

Wilson, P. M., Mack, D. E., & Grattan, K. P. (2008). Understanding motivation for exercise: A self-determination theory perspective. Canadian Psychology, 49, 250-256.

Silva, M. N., Teixeira, P. J., Markland, D. A., Minderico, C. S., Vieira, P. N., Castro, M. M., Coutinho, S.S., Santos, T. C., Matos. M.G., & Sardinha, L. B. (2008). . In , A randomized controlled trial to evaluate self-determination theory for exercise adherence and weight control: Rationale and intervention description (Vol 8, pp. 234-247). : .

, Treasure, D. C., & Wang, C. K. J. (2008). Motivational characteristics. In A. L. Smith & S. J. H. Biddle (Eds.), Youth physical activity and sedentary behavior: Challenges and solutions (pp. 193-213). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Wang, C.K.J., & (2007). Understanding young people’s motivation toward exercise: An integration of sport ability beliefs, achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory. In M.S. Hagger & N.L.D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 193-208). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics..

Duda, J. L., & Balaguer, I. (2007). The coach-created motivational climate. In S. Jowett & D. Lavalee (Eds.), Social Psychology of Sport (pp. 117-130). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2007). Advances in self-determination theory research in sport and exercise (editorial). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 597-599.

Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2007). The trans-contextual model of motivation. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 53-70). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Conroy, D. E., & Coatsworth, J. D. (2007). Competence motivation in sport and exercise: The hierarchical model of achievement motivation and self-determination theory. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 181-192). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Edmunds, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2007). Perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction as key psychological constructs in the exercise domain. In M. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 35-51). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ntoumanis, N., Vazou, S., Spiridoula,, & Duda, J. L. (2007). Peer-created motivational climate. In S. Jowette & D. Lavallee (Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp. 145-156). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Vansteenkiste, M., Soenens, B., & Lens, W. (2007). Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal promotion in sport and exercise: Understanding their differential impact on performance and persistence. In M. S. Hagger and N. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-Determination Theory in exercise and sport (pp. 167-180). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

, Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L., & Lippke, S. (2007). Theoretical frameworks in exercise psychology. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 537-559). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.

Sarrazin, P., Boiché, J., & Pelletier, L. G. (2007). A self-determination theory approach to dropout in athletes. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 229-242). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Pelletier, L. G., & Sarrazin, P. (2007). Measurement issues in self-determination theory and sport. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 143-152). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Treasure, D. C., Lemyre, N., Kuczka, K. K., & Standage, M. (2007). Motivation in elite sport: A self-determination perspective. In M. S. Hagger &, N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-determination theory in exercise and sport (pp. 153-165). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Loney, T., & Standage, M. (2007). A motivational and evolutionary perspective of the self in exercise and health. In J. A. Munoz-Yunta (Ed.), Advances in psychology research (Vol 50, pp. 100-150). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Standage, M., Gillison, F, & Treasure, D.C.  (2007). Self-determination and motivation in physical education. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-determination theory in exercise and sport (pp. 71-85). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Markland, D. A., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). A self-determination theory approach to understanding motivational interviewing and promoting regular physical activity. In M. S. Hagger and N. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-Determination Theory in exercise and sport (pp. 87-100). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Jones, R., & Standage, M. (2006). Leadership in the coaching process: Whose decisions really matter?. In R. Jones (Ed.), Re-conceptualising the coaching role and how to teach it: New ways of thinking about practice (pp. 65-76). Hove, England: Routledge.

Standage, M., & Duda, J. L. (2004). Motivational processes among older adults in sport and exercise settings. In M.R. Weiss (Ed.), Developmental sport and exercise psychology: A lifespan perspective (pp. 357-381). Morgantown, WV: Fit Press.

Frederick, C., & Morris, T. (2004). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and exercise. In T. Morris & J. Summers (Eds.), Sport psychology: Theory, applications and issues, 2nd ed. (pp. 121-151). Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons Australia.

Frederick, C. (2002). Self-determination theory and participation motivation research in the sport and exercise domain. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 277-294). Rochester, NY: University Of Rochester Press.

Vallerand, R. J., & Losier, G. F. (1999). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 142-169.

Frederick, C., & Ryan, R. M. (1995). Self-determination in sport: A review using cognitive evaluation theory. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 26, 5-23.