General Causality Orientations Scale – Studies

Some of the Studies that Used the GCOS

Validation Article

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 109-134.


Validation Article for the French Version

(the French version is available from Robert J. Vallerand: [email protected])

Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Lacouture, Y., & Deci, E. L. (1987). L’echelle des orientations generales a la causalite: Validation canadienne francaise du General Causality Orientations Scale. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 19, 1-15.


Other Articles

Amabile, T. M., Hill, K. G., Hennessey, B. A., & Tighe, E. M. (1994). The Work Preference Inventory: Assessing intrinsic and extrinsic motivational orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 950-967.

Anderson, S., Nero, F., Rodin, J., Diamond, M., et al. (1989). Coping patterns of in vitro fertilization nurse coordinators: Strategies for combating low outcome effectance. Psychology and Health, 3, 221-232.

Black, A. E., & Deci, E. L. (2000). The effects of instructors’ autonomy support and students’ autonomous motivation on learning organic chemistry: A self-determination theory perspective. Science Education, 84, 740-756.

Blustein, D. L. (1988). The relation between motivational processes and career exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 345-357.

Farmer, R., & Sudberg, N. D. (1986). Boredom proneness: The development and correlates of a new scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 50, 4-17.

Hodgins, H. S., Koestner, R., & Duncan, N. (1996). On the compatibility of autonomy and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 227-237.

Hodgins, H. S. & Liebeskind, E. (2003). Apology versus defense: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 297-316.

Hodgins, H. S., Liebeskind, E., & Schwartz, W. (1996). Getting out of hot water: Facework in social predicaments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 300-314.

Isaac, J. D., Sansone, C., & Smith, J. L. (1999). Other people as a source of interest in an activity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 239-265.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 410-422.

Kernis, M.H. (1982). Motivational orientations, anger, and aggression in males. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester.

King, K.B. (1984). Coping with cardiac surgery. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester.

Knee, C. R., Neighbors, C., & Vietor, N. (2003). Self-determination theory as a framework for understanding road rage. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 889-904.

Knee, C. R., & Zuckerman, M. (1996). Causality orientations and the disappearance of the self-serving bias. Journal of Research in Personality, 30, 76-87.

Knee, C. R., & Zuckerman, M. (1998). A nondefensive personality: Autonomy and control as moderators of defensive coping and self-handicapping. Journal of Research in Personality 32, 115-130.

Koestner, R. (1986). Praise, involvement and intrinsic motivation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, New York.

Koestner, R., Bernieri, F., & Zuckerman, M. (1992). Self-regulation and consistency between attitudes, traits, and behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 52-59.

Koestner, R., & Losier, G. F. (1996). Distinguishing reactive versus reflective autonomy, Journal of Personality, 64, 465-494.

Koestner, R., Gingras, I., Abutaa, R, Losier, G, DiDio, L., & Gagné, M. (1999). To follow expert advice when making a decision: An examination of reactive vs reflective autonomy. Journal of Personality, 67, 851-872.

Koestner, R., & Zuckerman, M. (1994). Causality orientations, failure, and achievement. Journal of Personality, 62, 321-346.

McHoskey, J.W. (1999). Machiavellianism, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals, and social interest: A self-determination theory analysis. Motivation and Emotion, 23, 267-284.

Robbins, R. M. (1995). Parental autonomy support vs. control: Child and parent correlates, and assessment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, New York.

Scherhorn, G. (1990). The addictive trait in buying behaviour. Journal of Consumer Policy, 13, 33-51.

Scherhorn, G., & Grunert, S. C. (1988, September). Using the causality orientations concept in consumer behaviour research. Paper presented at the 13th Annual Colloquium of the International Association for Research in Economic Psychology, Leuven, Belgium.

Scherhorn, G., Reisch, L. A., & Raab, G. (1990). Addictive buying in West Germany: An empirical study. Journal of Consumer Policy, 13, 355-387.

Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1995). Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 531-543.

Sheldon, K. M. (1995). Creativity and self-determination in personality. Creativity Research Journal, 8, 61-72.

Sheldon, K. M. (1996). The Social Awareness Inventory: Development and applications. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 620-634.

Strauss, J. & Ryan, R.M. (1987). Autonomy disturbances in subtypes of anorexia nervosa. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 254-258.

Wheeler, B.L. (1984). Awareness of internal and external cues as a function of the interaction between causality orientations and motivational subsystems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Fordham University.

Williams, G. C., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Internalization of biopsychosocial values by medical students: A test of self-determination theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 767-779.

Williams, G. C., Grow, V. M., Freedman, Z., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1996). Motivational predictors of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 115-126.

Wong, M. M. (2000). The relations among causality orientations, academic experience, academic performance, and academic commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 315-326.

Zuckerman, M., Gioioso, C., & Tellini, S. (1988). Control orientation, self-monitoring, and preference for image versus quality approach to advertising. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 89-100.

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Note: For additional studies that used the GCOS, go to Causality Orientations in the Publications Section.