Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Scales & Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction & Frustration Scales

 

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Self-determination theory posits three universal psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and suggests that these must be ongoingly satisfied for people to maintain optimal performance and well-being.

The Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Scales is a set of questionnaires that assess the degree to which people feel satisfaction of these three needs. There is a general form, as well as domain specific forms for work and relationships.

More recently, questionnaires assessing not only need satisfaction, but also need frustration have been developed, namely, Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scales. There is a general form, as well as domain specific forms for work and physical education. There is also an adaptation of the general scale for daily measurement (diary-studies).

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scales are important because need satisfaction is associated with well-being whereas need frustration is associated with ill-being. Often being able to predict both is useful. However, if you are interested only in the level of need satisfaction, the original scales, Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction (in general, work domain, and relationship domain), would likely be most appropriate.

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Scale – in General

This scale addresses need satisfaction in general in one’s life. It has 21 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Please use the following references when using this scale: (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Gagné, 2003).

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Scale – Work Domain

This scale addresses need satisfaction in one’s work domain. It has 21 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Please use the following references when using this scale: (Deci, Ryan, Gagné, Leone, Usunov, & Kornazheva, 2001; Ilardi, Leone, Kasser, & Ryan, 1993; Kasser, Davey, & Ryan, 1992).

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Scale – Relationship Domain

This scale addresses need satisfaction in one’s particular relationships (e.g., spouse, best friend, mother). It has 9 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Please use the following reference when using this scale: (La Guardia, Ryan, Couchman, & Deci, 2000).

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale – in General

This scale addresses both need satisfaction and frustration in general in one’s life. The packet includes versions in the following languages: Dutch, English, Chinese, and Spanish. It has 24 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Please use this reference when using the scale: (Chen, Vansteenkiste, Beyers, Boone, Deci, Duriez, Lens, Matos, Mouratidis, Ryan, Sheldon, Soenens, Van Petegem, Van der Kaap-Deeder, & Verstuyf, 2015).

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale – Physical Education Domain

This scale addresses both need satisfaction and frustration in the context of physical education. Currently, only a Dutch version is available. It has 24 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Please use this reference when using the scale: (Haerens, Aelterman, Vansteenkiste, Soenens, & Van Petegem, 2015). It can also be useful to mention that the Physical Education domain version was based on the original scale assessing needs in general validated by Chen, Vansteenkiste, Beyers, Boone, Deci, Duriez, Lens, Matos, Mouratidis, Ryan, Sheldon, Soenens, Van Petegem, Van der Kaap-Deeder, & Verstuyf, 2015.

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale – Work Domain

This scale addresses both need satisfaction and frustration in the context of one’s workplace. It has 24 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Although still in experimental stage, this assessment of needs was shown to be related in theoretically meaningful ways to work adjustment (Schultz, Ryan, Niemiec, Legate, & Williams, 2015). Please use this reference when using the scale: (Schultz, Ryan, Niemiec, Legate, & Williams, 2015). It can also be useful to mention that the Work domain version was based on the original scale assessing needs in general validated by Chen, Vansteenkiste, Beyers, Boone, Deci, Duriez, Lens, Matos, Mouratidis, Ryan, Sheldon, Soenens, Van Petegem, Van der Kaap-Deeder, & Verstuyf, 2015.

Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale – Diary version

This scale addresses both need satisfaction and frustration on a daily basis. It has 12 items assessing the three needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Although still in experimental stage, this assessment of needs was shown to be related in theoretically meaningful ways to daily contextual support of the needs and well-being outcomes (Kaap-Deeder, Vansteenkiste, Soenens, & Mabbe, in press). Please use this reference when using the scale: (Kaap-Deeder, Vansteenkiste, Soenens, & Mabbe, in press). It can also be useful to mention that the Work domain version was based on the original scale assessing needs in general validated by Chen, Vansteenkiste, Beyers, Boone, Deci, Duriez, Lens, Matos, Mouratidis, Ryan, Sheldon, Soenens, Van Petegem, Van der Kaap-Deeder, & Verstuyf, 2015.

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